Rabat, Morocco
Rabat, Morocco

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Barakat A.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Chuetor S.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Monlau F.,University of Foggia | Solhy A.,MAScIR Foundation | Rouau X.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Applied Energy | Year: 2014

In this study, we developed an eco-friendly dry alkaline chemomechanical pretreatment of wheat straw without production of waste and liquid fractions with objective to save energy input, to decrease the environmental impact and to increase enzymatic hydrolysis.Wheat straw was pretreated with NH3, NaOHH2O2, NH3H2O2 and NaOH at high materials concentration (5kg/L) equivalent to biomass/liquid ratio of 1/5 (dry chemomechanical) and at low materials concentration (0.2kg/L) equivalent to biomass/liquid ratio of 5/1 (dilute chemomechanical). Untreated and chemical treated wheat straw samples were subjected to grinding and milling following by enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial cellulases.NaOH and NaOHH2O2 dry chemomechanical pretreatments were found to be more effective in decreasing the particle size and energy consumption and increasing the surface area. However, alkaline dilute-chemomechanical treatments consumed higher amounts of water (5L water/1kg biomass) and energy compared to dry-chemomechanical treatments. In point of fact, the lowest energy efficiency obtained was 0.417kg glucose kWh-1 for dilute-chemomechanical treatments compared to 0.888kg glucose kWh-1 glucose kWh-1 for dry-chemomechanical treatments.Alkaline dry-chemomechanical pretreatments approach appears more attractive and efficient in terms of glucose, energy efficiency and environmental impact, compared to conventional alkaline chemomechanical pretreatments. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Amer W.,MAScIR Foundation | Abdelouahdi K.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Ramananarivo H.R.,MAScIR Foundation | Zahouily M.,Hassan II University | And 5 more authors.
CrystEngComm | Year: 2014

Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (mn-HAP) was expeditiously synthesized using a pseudo sol-gel microwave-assisted protocol in the presence of two novel templates, namely sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) and linear alkylbenzenesulfonate (LABS). The cooperative self-assembly of the calcium precursor with the surfactant molecules, followed by the interaction with the PO43- ligand, led to the formation of mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite with controlled pore sizes. The systematic use of these surfactants in combination with microwave energy input enables the precise control of pore size within a narrow-size distribution range (35 nm). The controlled growth of hydroxyapatite is confirmed using several techniques such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), low-angle X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and N2 physisorption isotherm analysis. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Lin C.S.K.,City University of Hong Kong | Pfaltzgraff L.A.,University of York | Herrero-Davila L.,Brocklesby Ltd. | Mubofu E.B.,University of Dar es Salaam | And 10 more authors.
Energy and Environmental Science | Year: 2013

Increasing demand for fuels and chemicals, driven by factors including over-population, the threat of global warming and the scarcity of fossil resources, strains our resource system and necessitates the development of sustainable and innovative strategies for the chemical industry. Our society is currently experiencing constraints imposed by our resource system, which drives industry to increase its overall efficiency by improving existing processes or finding new uses for waste. Food supply chain waste emerged as a resource with a significant potential to be employed as a raw material for the production of fuels and chemicals given the abundant volumes globally generated, its contained diversity of functionalised chemical components and the opportunity to be utilised for higher value applications. The present manuscript is aimed to provide a general overview of the current and most innovative uses of food supply chain waste, providing a range of worldwide case-studies from around the globe. These studies will focus on examples illustrating the use of citrus peel, waste cooking oil and cashew shell nut liquid in countries such as China, the UK, Tanzania, Spain, Greece or Morocco. This work emphasises 2nd generation food waste valorisation and re-use strategies for the production of higher value and marketable products rather than conventional food waste processing (incineration for energy recovery, feed or composting) while highlighting issues linked to the use of food waste as a sustainable raw material. The influence of food regulations on food supply chain waste valorisation will also be addressed as well as our society's behavior towards food supply chain waste. "There was no ways of dealing with it that have not been known for thousands of years. These ways are essentially four: dumping it, burning it, converting it into something that can be used again, and minimizing the volume of material goods-future garbage-that is produced in the first place." William Rathje on waste (1945-2012)-Director of the Tucson Garbage project. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013.


Khalil A.,Masdar Institute of Science and Technology | Fihri A.,MAScIR Foundation | Jouiad M.,Masdar Institute of Science and Technology | Hashaikeh R.,Masdar Institute of Science and Technology
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2014

The N-arylation of indoles with a variety of aryl bromides is reported using copper oxide nanoparticles as a heterogeneous catalyst. These copper oxide nanoparticles, which were produced in a novel, facile, and scalable fashion via an electrospinning technique, resulted in an excellent product yield under mild conditions. Moreover, the catalyst was easily recovered and reused several times without significant loss of activity. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hassine A.,Hassan II University | Sebti S.,Hassan II University | Solhy A.,MAScIR Foundation | Zahouily M.,MAScIR Foundation | And 5 more authors.
Applied Catalysis A: General | Year: 2013

The Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction is one of the most important synthetic catalytic reactions developed in the 20th century. However, the use of toxic organic solvents for this reaction still poses a scientific challenge and is an aspect of economical and ecological relevance. The use of water as a reaction medium overcomes this issue. In the present work, we described efficient Suzuki coupling reactions in water, without any phase transfer reagents and it is possible to couple challenging substrates like aryl chlorides. Notably, this protocol also works with ultra-low loading of catalyst with high turnover numbers. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


El Miri N.,Hassan II University | El Miri N.,MAScIR Foundation | Abdelouahdi K.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Zahouily M.,Hassan II University | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2015

Bio-nanocomposite films based on polyvinyl alcohol/chitosan (PVA/CS) polymeric blend and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) were prepared by casting a homogenous and stable aqueous mixture of the three components. CNC used as nanoreinforcing agents were extracted at the nanometric scale from sugarcane bagasse via sulfuric acid hydrolysis; then they were characterized and successfully dispersed into a PVA/CS (50/50, w/w) blend to produce PVA/CS-CNC bio-nanocomposite films at different CNC contents (0.5, 2.5, 5 wt %). Viscosity measurement of the film-forming solutions and structural and morphological characterizations of the solid films showed that the CNC are well dispersed into PVA/CS blend forming strong interfacial interactions that provide an enhanced load transfer between polymer chains and CNC, thus improving their properties. The obtained bio-nanocomposite films are mechanically strong and exhibit improved thermal properties. The addition of 5 wt % CNC within a PVA/CS blend increased the Young's modulus by 105%, the tensile strength by 77%, and the toughness by 68%. Herein, the utilization of Moroccan sugarcane bagasse as raw material to produce high quality CNC has been explored. Additionally, the ability of the as-isolated CNC to reinforce polymer blends was studied, resulting in the production of the aforementioned bio-nanocomposite films with improved properties. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Essamlali Y.,MAScIR Foundation | Essamlali Y.,Hassan II University | Amadine O.,MAScIR Foundation | Amadine O.,Hassan II University | And 8 more authors.
ACS Sustainable Chemistry and Engineering | Year: 2013

An expeditious and efficient protocol for the synthesis of naphthopyrans has been developed that proceeds via a one-pot three-component sequential reaction in water catalyzed by phosphates (hydroxyapatite or sodium-modified hydroxyapatite). This is part of the mission to maximize valorization efforts of Moroccan natural phosphate resources. The title compounds have been obtained in high yield and purity. The catalyst can be reused several times, making this procedure facile, practical, and sustainable. © 2013 American Chemical Society.


Amer W.,MAScIR Foundation | Abdelouahdi K.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Ramananarivo H.R.,MAScIR Foundation | Fihri A.,MAScIR Foundation | And 6 more authors.
Materials Science and Engineering C | Year: 2014

In this report new hybrid materials based on brushite-alginate and monetite-alginate were prepared by self-assembling alginate chains and phosphate source ions via a gelation process with calcium ions. The alginate served as nanoreactor for nucleation and growth of brushite or/and monetite due to its gelling and swelling properties. The alginate gel framework, the crystalline phase and morphology of formed hybrid biomaterials were shown to be strongly dependent upon the concentration of the phosphate precursors. These materials were characterized by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDX). © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Amer W.,MAScIR Foundation | Amer W.,Mohammed V University | Abdelouahdi K.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Ramananarivo H.R.,MAScIR Foundation | And 8 more authors.
Materials Letters | Year: 2013

Mesoporous nano-hydroxyapatite (mn-HAP) was successfully synthesized via a novel micelle-templating method using lauryl dimethylaminoacetic acid as zwitterionic surfactant. The systematic use of such a surfactant in combination with microwave energy input enables the precise control of pore size in a narrow-size distribution range (36 nm). The comparison of the specific surfaces area of dried and calcined mn-HAP (87 m2 g-1 and 55 m 2 g-1, respectively) illustrates the fundamental role of zwitterionic surfactant in the synthesis of mn-HAP. The controlled growth of hydroxyapatite is confirmed by means of thermogravimetric analyses (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), solid-state NMR, N2 adsorption-desorption measurements (BET), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Hassan II University, MAScIR Foundation, CNRS Agropolymers Engineering and Emerging Technologies, French National Center for Scientific Research and University Mohammed Polytechnique
Type: | Journal: Carbohydrate polymers | Year: 2015

This study was aimed to develop bio-nanocomposite films of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)/starch (ST) polysaccharide matrix reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) using the solution casting method. The CNC were extracted at the nanometric scale from sugarcane bagasse via sulfuric acid hydrolysis and used as reinforcing phase to produce CMC/ST-CNC bio-nanocomposite films at different CNC loading levels (0.5-5.0 wt%). Steady shear viscosity and dynamic viscoelastic measurements of film-forming solution (FFS) of neat CMC, CMC/ST blend and CMC/ST-CNC bio-nanocomposites were evaluated. Viscosity measurements revealed that a transition from Newtonian behavior to shear thinning occurred when CNC were added. The dynamic tests confirmed that all FFS have a viscoelastic behavior with an entanglement network structure, induced by the hydrogen bonding. In regard to the cast film quality, the rheological data showed that all FFS were suitable for casting of films at ambient temperature. The effect of CNC addition on the optical transparency, water vapor permeability (WVP) and tensile properties of bio-nanocomposite films was studied. It was found that bio-nanocomposite films remain transparent due to CNC dispersion at the nanoscale. The WVP was significantly reduced and the elastic modulus and tensile strength were increased gradually with the addition of CNC. Herein, the steps to form new eco-friendly bio-nanocomposite films were described by taking advantage of the combination of CMC, ST and CNC. The as-produced films exhibited good optical transparency, reduced WVP and enhanced tensile properties, which are the main properties required for packaging applications.

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