Skop V.,Institute for Clinical |
Trnovska J.,Institute for Clinical |
Oliyarnyk O.,Institute for Clinical |
Markova I.,Institute for Clinical |
And 9 more authors.
Physiological Research | Year: 2016
Dyslipidemia and inflammation play an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and liver disease. Fenofibrate has a well-known efficacy to reduce cholesterol and triglycerides. Combination with statins can ameliorate hypolipidemic and anti-inflammatory effects of fibrates. In the current study, we tested the anti-inflammatory and metabolic effects of fenofibrate alone and in combination with rosuvastatin in a model of inflammation and metabolic syndrome, using spontaneously hypertensive rats expressing the human C-reactive protein transgene (SHR-CRP transgenic rats). SHR-CRP rats treated with fenofibrate alone (100 mg/kg body weight) or in combination with rosuvastatin (20 mg/kg body weight) vs. SHR-CRP untreated controls showed increased levels of proinflammatory marker IL6, increased concentrations of ALT, AST and ALP, increased oxidative stress in the liver and necrotic changes of the liver. In addition, SHR-CRP rats treated with fenofibrate, or with fenofibrate combined with rosuvastatin vs. untreated controls, exhibited increased serum triglycerides and reduced HDL cholesterol, as well as reduced hepatic triglyceride, cholesterol and glycogen concentrations. These findings suggest that in the presence of high levels of human CRP, fenofibrate can induce liver damage even in combination with rosuvastatin. Accordingly, these results caution against the possible hepatotoxic effects of fenofibrate in patients with high levels of CRP. © 2016 Institute of Physiology of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic.
Obruba P.,Charles University |
Capek L.,Technical University of Liberec |
Henys P.,Technical University of Liberec |
Kopp L.,Masaryk Hospital in Usti nad Labem
Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering | Year: 2016
Elastic bundle nailing is a method for simple humeral mid-shaft fracture osteosynthesis. The aim of our subsequent numerical simulations was to find out torsional and bending stiffness of an elastic bundle nailed humerus. Parametrical 3D numerical model was developed. The diameter of nails was the varying parameter of 1.8, 2.5, 3 and 4 mm. From our results can be seen that the bending stiffness in bundle nailing technique does not depend on nail diameter. On the contrary the torsional stiffness does highly depend on nail diameter. The dependency of the maximal stress on a nail diameter during bending and torsion of the humerus is non-linear. It can be seen that the higher diameter is used the higher stress occurs. Achieved results allow us for the recommendation of optimal nail diameter for this method, which lies between 2 and 3 mm. © 2016 Taylor & Francis
Kelbich P.,Hospital Kadan |
Kelbich P.,Charles University |
Kelbich P.,Masaryk Hospital in USti Nad Labem |
Kelbich P.,Laboratory for Liquorology and Neuroimmunology Topelex |
And 16 more authors.
Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine | Year: 2014
Background: The concentrations of glucose and lactate in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provide important information about energy metabolism in the CSF compartment. To improve our understanding of this information we introduced a new parameter resulting from a formula for calculating the fictitious production of adenosine triphosphate, i.e., the coefficient of energy balance (KEB). Methods: We evaluated cytology, the concentrations of glucose and lactate and the KEB in the CSF of 948 patients, who were divided into five groups. For statistical analysis we used the Kruskal-Wallis test with post-hoc analysis using the Dunn method and multinomial regression analysis. We determined the specificities and sensitivities of the cytological pictures and the KEB. Results: A KEB >28.0 corresponded to normal energy metabolism in the CSF. A KEB <28.0 corresponded to an increased level of anaerobic metabolism in the CSF during inflammation in the CNS. A KEB <10.0 corresponded to a high level of anaerobic metabolism in the CSF during severe inflammation with an oxidative burst of professional phagocytes in the CNS. The KEB parameter increased the specificities of cytological examinations of the CSF in all cases. Conclusions: The KEB represents an equation for calculating the fictitious average number of ATP molecules produced in the CSF compartment from one molecule of glucose, and we used it successfully as a new parameter for evaluating energy metabolism status in the CSF.
PubMed | Masaryk Hospital in Usti nad Labem, Technical University of Liberec and Charles University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering | Year: 2016
Elastic bundle nailing is a method for simple humeral mid-shaft fracture osteosynthesis. The aim of our subsequent numerical simulations was to find out torsional and bending stiffness of an elastic bundle nailed humerus. Parametrical 3D numerical model was developed. The diameter of nails was the varying parameter of 1.8, 2.5, 3 and 4mm. From our results can be seen that the bending stiffness in bundle nailing technique does not depend on nail diameter. On the contrary the torsional stiffness does highly depend on nail diameter. The dependency of the maximal stress on a nail diameter during bending and torsion of the humerus is non-linear. It can be seen that the higher diameter is used the higher stress occurs. Achieved results allow us for the recommendation of optimal nail diameter for this method, which lies between 2 and 3mm.
PubMed | Masaryk hospital in Usti nad Labem, National Institute of Mental Health, Charles University and Institute of Chemical Technology Prague
Type: | Journal: Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry | Year: 2016
MDAI (5,6-Methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane) has a reputation as a non-neurotoxic ecstasy replacement amongst recreational users, however the drug has been implicated in some severe and lethal intoxications. Due to this, and the fact that the drug is almost unexplored scientifically we investigated a broad range of effects of acute MDAI administration: pharmacokinetics (in sera, brain, liver and lung); behaviour (open field; prepulse inhibition, PPI); acute effects on thermoregulation (in group-/individually-housed rats); and systemic toxicity (median lethal dose, LD50) in Wistar rats. Pharmacokinetics of MDAI was rapid, maximum median concentration in serum and brain was attained 30min and almost returned to zero 6h after subcutaneous (sc.) administration of 10mg/kg MDAI; brain/serum ratio was ~4. MDAI particularly accumulated in lung tissue. In the open field, MDAI (5, 10, 20 and 40mg/kg sc.) increased exploratory activity, induced signs of behavioural serotonin syndrome and reduced locomotor habituation, although by 60min some effects had diminished. All doses of MDAI significantly disrupted PPI and the effect was present during the onset of its action as well as 60min after treatment. Unexpectedly, 40mg/kg MDAI killed 90% of animals in the first behavioural test, hence LD50 tests were conducted which yielded 28.33mg/kg sc. and 35mg/kg intravenous but was not established up to 40mg/kg after gastric administration. Disseminated intravascular coagulopathy (DIC) with brain oedema was concluded as a direct cause of death in sc. treated animals. Finally, MDAI (10, 20mg/kg sc.) caused hyperthermia and perspiration in group-housed rats. In conclusion, the drug had fast pharmacokinetics and accumulated in lipohilic tissues. Behavioural findings were consistent with mild, transient stimulation with anxiolysis and disruption of sensorimotor processing. Together with hyperthermia, the drug had a similar profile to related entactogens, especially 3,4-metyhlenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) and paramethoxymethamphetamine (PMMA). Surprisingly subcutaneous MDAI appears to be more lethal than previously thought and its serotonergic toxicity is likely exacerbated by group housing conditions. MDAI therefore poses greater risks to physical and mental health than recognised hitherto.
Derner M.,Masaryk Hospital in Usti nad Labem
Prague medical report | Year: 2011
A 41-year-old man with injury of right half of the thorax, fractures of the left crural bones and paralysis of the right upper limb was admitted to our hospital. A CT examination at admission revealed bilateral pulmonary contusion and bilateral fluid- and pneumothorax. In addition pneumomediastinum, pneumopericardium, subcutaneous emphysema and pneumorrhachis at the cervicothoracic transition was demonstrated. Abnormal findings in the skull and brain were not revealed. The fifth day after admission repeated CT examination demonstrated extensive frontal pneumocephalus on the right, presence of air in several cisterns and in the right optic nerve sheaths (pneumoopticus). Right frontal craniotomy was performed, dura mater was incised and air was evacuated. Rapid regression of pneomocephalus was evident postoperatively. The tenth day after admission MRI of the cervical spine and brachial plexus was performed. At the level of the C7 and C8, nerve roots pneumomenigocele and a nerve retracting ball indicating the presence of a nerve root injury were discernible. This case demonstrated that severe thoracic blunt trauma leads to acute increase of intrathoracic pressure with concomitant fluid- and pneumothorax, pneumomediastinum and pneumopericard. From the mediastinum air propagated subcutaneously. Disrupted cervical dural sheaths resulted in leakage of cerebrospinal fluid and entry of air from mediastinum to subdural and subarachnoid spinal and cranial space and to the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve.