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Karunaratne A.,Queen Mary, University of London | Boyde A.,Queen Mary, University of London | Esapa C.T.,University of Oxford | Esapa C.T.,Mammalian Genetics Unit and Mary Lyon Center | And 7 more authors.
Bone | Year: 2013

In metabolic bone diseases, the alterations in fibrillar level bone-material quality affecting macroscopic mechanical competence are not well-understood quantitatively. Here, we quantify the fibrillar level deformation in cantilever bending in a mouse model for hereditary rickets (Hpr). Microfocus in-situ synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) combined with cantilever bending was used to resolve nanoscale fibril strain in tensile- and compressive tissue regions separately, with quantitative backscattered scanning electron microscopy used to measure microscale mineralization. Tissue-level flexural moduli for Hpr mice were significantly (p<. 0.01) smaller compared to wild-type (~. 5 to 10-fold reduction). At the fibrillar level, the fibril moduli within the tensile and compressive zones were significantly (p<. 0.05) lower by ~. 3- to 5-fold in Hpr mice compared to wild-type mice. Hpr mice have a lower mineral content (24.2 ± 2.1. Ca. wt.% versus 27.4 ± 3.3. Ca wt.%) and its distribution was more heterogeneous compared to wild-type animals. However, the average effective fibril modulus did not differ significantly (p>. 0.05) over ages (4, 7 and 10. weeks) between tensile and compressive zones. Our results indicate that incompletely mineralized fibrils in Hpr mice have greater deformability and lower moduli in both compression and tension, and those compressive and tensile zones have similar moduli at the fibrillar level. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Karunaratne A.,Queen Mary, University of London | Davis G.R.,Queen Mary, University of London | Hiller J.,Diamond Light Source | Esapa C.T.,University of Oxford | And 7 more authors.
Bone | Year: 2012

Metabolic bone disorders such as rickets are associated with altered in vivo muscular force distributions on the skeletal system. During development, these altered forces can potentially affect the spatial and temporal dynamics of mineralised tissue formation, but the exact mechanisms are not known. Here we have used a murine model of hypophosphatemic rickets (Hpr) to study the development of the mineralised nanostructure in the intramembranously ossifying scapulae (shoulder bone). Using position-resolved scanning small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), we quantified the degree and direction of mineral nanocrystallite alignment over the width of the scapulae, from the load bearing lateral border (LB) regions to the intermediate infraspinous fossa (IF) tissue. These measurements revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase in mineral nanocrystallite alignment in the LB when compared to the IF region, with increased tissue maturation in wild-type mice; this was absent in mice with rickets. The crystallites were more closely aligned to the macroscopic bone boundary in the LB when compared to the IF region in both wild type and Hpr mice, but the degree of alignment was reduced in Hpr mice. These findings are consistent with a correlation between the nanocrystallites within fibrils and in vivo muscular forces. Thus our results indicate a relevant mechanism for the observed increased macroscopic deformability in rickets, via a significant alteration in the mineral particle alignment, which is mediated by an altered spatial distribution of muscle forces. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

Karunaratne A.,Queen Mary, University of London | Karunaratne A.,Imperial College London | Xi L.,Queen Mary, University of London | Bentley L.,Mammalian Genetics Unit and Mary Lyon Center | And 10 more authors.
Bone | Year: 2016

A serious adverse clinical effect of glucocorticoid steroid treatment is secondary osteoporosis, enhancing fracture risk in bone. This rapid increase in bone fracture risk is largely independent of bone loss (quantity), and must therefore arise from degradation of the quality of the bone matrix at the micro- and nanoscale. However, we lack an understanding of both the specific alterations in bone quality n steroid-induced osteoporosis as well as the mechanistic effects of these changes. Here we demonstrate alterations in the nanostructural parameters of the mineralized fibrillar collagen matrix, which affect bone quality, and develop a model linking these to increased fracture risk in glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis. Using a mouse model with an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-induced corticotrophin releasing hormone promoter mutation (Crh-120/+) that developed hypercorticosteronaemia and osteoporosis, we utilized in situ mechanical testing with small angle X-ray diffraction, synchrotron micro-computed tomography and quantitative backscattered electron imaging to link altered nano- and microscale deformation mechanisms in the bone matrix to abnormal macroscopic mechanics. We measure the deformation of the mineralized collagen fibrils, and the nano-mechanical parameters including effective fibril modulus and fibril to tissue strain ratio. A significant reduction (51%) of fibril modulus was found in Crh-120/+ mice. We also find a much larger fibril strain/tissue strain ratio in Crh-120/+ mice (~1.5) compared to the wild-type mice (~0.5), indicative of a lowered mechanical competence at the nanoscale. Synchrotron microCT show a disruption of intracortical architecture, possibly linked to osteocytic osteolysis. These findings provide a clear quantitative demonstration of how bone quality changes increase macroscopic fragility in secondary osteoporosis. © 2015 The Authors. Source

Loh N.Y.,University of Oxford | Bentley L.,Mammalian Genetics Unit and Mary Lyon Center | Dimke H.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Verkaart S.,Radboud University Nijmegen | And 16 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Hypercalciuria is a major cause of nephrolithiasis, and is a common and complex disorder involving genetic and environmental factors. Identification of genetic factors for monogenic forms of hypercalciuria is hampered by the limited availability of large families, and to facilitate such studies, we screened for hypercalciuria in mice from an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis programme. We identified a mouse with autosomal dominant hypercalciuria (HCALC1). Linkage studies mapped the Hcalc1 locus to a 11.94 Mb region on chromosome 6 containing the transient receptor potential cation channel, subfamily V, members 5 (Trpv5) and 6 (Trpv6) genes. DNA sequence analysis of coding regions, intron-exon boundaries and promoters of Trpv5 and Trpv6 identified a novel T to C transition in codon 682 of TRPV5, mutating a conserved serine to a proline (S682P). Compared to wild-type littermates, heterozygous (Trpv5682P/+) and homozygous (Trpv5682P/682P) mutant mice had hypercalciuria, polyuria, hyperphosphaturia and a more acidic urine, and ~10% of males developed tubulointerstitial nephritis. Trpv5682P/682P mice also had normal plasma parathyroid hormone but increased 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations without increased bone resorption, consistent with a renal defect for the hypercalciuria. Expression of the S682P mutation in human embryonic kidney cells revealed that TRPV5-S682P-expressing cells had a lower baseline intracellular calcium concentration than wild-type TRPV5-expressing cells, suggesting an altered calcium permeability. Immunohistological studies revealed a selective decrease in TRPV5-expression from the renal distal convoluted tubules of Trpv5682P/+ and Trpv5682P/682P mice consistent with a trafficking defect. In addition, Trpv5682P/682P mice had a reduction in renal expression of the intracellular calcium-binding protein, calbindin-D28K, consistent with a specific defect in TRPV5-mediated renal calcium reabsorption. Thus, our findings indicate that the TRPV5 S682P mutant is functionally significant and study of HCALC1, a novel model for autosomal dominant hypercalciuria, may help further our understanding of renal calcium reabsorption and hypercalciuria. © 2013 Loh et al. Source

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