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Armstead A.L.,West Virginia University | Minarchick V.C.,West Virginia University | Porter D.W.,West Virginia University | Porter D.W.,U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Exposure to hard metal tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) "dusts" in enclosed industrial environments is known to contribute to the development of hard metal lung disease and an increased risk for lung cancer. Currently, the influence of local and systemic inflammation on disease progression following WC-Co exposure remains unclear. To better understand the relationship between WC-Co nanoparticle (NP) exposure and its resultant effects, the acute local pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses caused by WC-Co NPs were explored using an intra-tracheal instillation (IT) model and compared to those of CeO2(another occupational hazard) NP exposure. Sprague-Dawley rats were given an IT dose (0-500 μg per rat) of WC-Co or CeO2 NPs. Following 24-hr exposure, broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and whole blood were collected and analyzed. A consistent lack of acute local pulmonary inflammation was observed in terms of the broncho-alveolar lavage fluid parameters examined (i.e. LDH, albumin, and macrophage activation) in animals exposed to WCCo NP; however, significant acute pulmonary inflammation was observed in the CeO2 NP group. The lack of acute inflammation following WC-Co NP exposure contrasts with earlier in vivo reports regarding WC-Co toxicity in rats, illuminating the critical role of NP dose and exposure time and bringing into question the potential role of impurities in particle samples. Further, we demonstrated that WC-Co NP exposure does not induce acute systemic effects since no significant increase in circulating inflammatory cytokines were observed. Taken together, the results of this in vivo study illustrate the distinct differences in acute local pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses to NPs composed of WC-Co and CeO2; therefore, it is important that the outcomes of pulmonary exposure to one type of NPs may not be implicitly extrapolated to other types of NPs. © 2015, Public Library of Science. All rights reserved. Source


Luo H.,Alderson Broaddus College | Jiang B.,West Virginia University | Li B.,West Virginia University | Li B.,Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Nanomedicine | Year: 2012

Ovarian cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death for women throughout the Western world. Kaempferol, a natural flavonoid, has shown promise in the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer. A common concern about using dietary supplements for chemoprevention is their bioavailability. Nanoparticles have shown promise in increasing the bioavailability of some chemicals. Here we developed five different types of nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol and tested their efficacy in the inhibition of viability of cancerous and normal ovarian cells. We found that positively charged nanoparticle formulations did not lead to a significant reduction in cancer cell viability, whereas nonionic polymeric nanoparticles resulted in enhanced reduction of cancer cell viability. Among the nonionic polymeric nanoparticles, poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-PPO-PEO) nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol led to significant reduction in cell viability of both cancerous and normal cells. Poly(DL-lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol resulted in enhanced reduction of cancer cell viability together with no significant reduction in cell viability of normal cells compared with kaempferol alone. Therefore, both PEO-PPO-PEO and PLGA nanoparticle formulations were effective in reducing cancer cell viability, while PLGA nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol had selective toxicity against cancer cells and normal cells. A PLGA nanoparticle formulation could be advantageous in the prevention and treatment of ovarian cancers. On the other hand, PEO-PPO-PEO nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol were more effective inhibitors of cancer cells, but they also significantly reduced the viability of normal cells. PEO-PPO-PEO nanoparticles incorporating kaempferol may be suitable as a cancer-targeting strategy, which could limit the effects of the nanoparticles on normal cells while retaining their potency against cancer cells. We have identified two nanoparticle formulations incorporating kaempferol that may lead to breakthroughs in cancer treatment. Both PEO-PPO-PEO and PLGA nanoparticle formulations had superior effects compared with kaempferol alone in reducing cancer cell viability. © 2012 Luo et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd. Source


Lorusso P.M.,Barbara Ann Karmanos Cancer Institute | Krishnamurthi S.,Case Western Reserve University | Youssoufian H.,Ziopharm | Hall N.,Imclone Systems | And 6 more authors.
Investigational New Drugs | Year: 2014

Background IMC-18F1 (icrucumab), a human monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 (VEGFR-1), potently inhibits ligand-dependent phosphorylation of VEGFR-1 and downstream signaling, making icrucumab an attractive candidate for antitumor activity. Objectives The primary objective was to determine the safety profile and maximum tolerated dose of icrucumab in patients with advanced solid tumors that were previously unresponsive to standard therapy or for which no standard therapy was available. Methods In this open-label, dose-escalation, Phase 1 study, patients received icrucumab intravenously weekly at 2, 3, 6, and 12 mg/kg (Cohorts 1-4), every other week (q2w) at 15 mg/kg (Cohort 5), or every third week at 20 mg/kg (Cohort 6). Patients received icrucumab until evidence of progressive disease or other withdrawal criteria were met. Results Twenty-six patients received icrucumab. The most common adverse events were fatigue, nausea, peripheral edema, anemia, dyspnea, and vomiting. No dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were observed in Cohorts 1-5. Two DLTs were observed in Cohort 6 (anemia and hyponatremia), and enrollment was stopped. No patient demonstrated an immunogenic response. Overall, icrucumab exhibited nonlinear pharmacokinetics at doses >6 mg/kg. Six patients (23.1 %) achieved stable disease with median duration of 11.1 weeks (range = 10.3-18.7 weeks); tumor types were thyroid, melanoma, colorectal (3 patients), and small-cell lung cancers. Conclusions Icrucumab was safely administered weekly at doses of 2-12 mg/kg and q2w at a dose of 15 mg/kg with no DLTs. Based on achievement of stable disease, icrucumab has potential for antitumor activity against advanced solid tumors. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York. Source


Li H.,West Virginia University | Li H.,University of Pittsburgh | Hamza T.,West Virginia University | Tidwell J.E.,West Virginia University | And 3 more authors.
Advanced Healthcare Materials | Year: 2013

Platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) has attracted great attention and has been increasingly used for a variety of clinical applications including orthopedic surgeries, periodontal and oral surgeries, maxillofacial surgeries, plastic surgeries, and sports medicine. However, very little is known about the antimicrobial activities of PRP. PRP is found to have antimicrobial properties both in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the antimicrobial properties of PRP are bacterial-strain-specific and time-specific: PRP significantly (80-100 fold reduction in colony-forming units) inhibits the growth of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Group A streptococcus, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae within the first few hours but it has no significant antimicrobial properties against E. coli and Pseudomonas. The antimicrobial properties of PRP also depend on the concentration of thrombin. In vivo, an implant-associated spinal infection rabbit model is established and used to evaluate the antimicrobial and wound-healing properties of PRP. Compared to the infection controls, PRP treatment results in significant reduction in bacterial colonies in bone samples at all time points studied (i.e. 1, 2, and 3 weeks) and significant increase in mineralized tissues (thereby better bone healing) at postoperative weeks 2 and 3. PRP therefore may be a useful adjunct strategy against postoperative implant-associated infections. Platelet-rich-plasma (PRP) shows unique antimicrobial properties both in vitro and in vivo. An implant-associated spinal infection rabbit model shows that PRP treatment leads to a significant reduction in bacterial burdens together with a significant improvement in wound healing. PRP could be an advanced healthcare material against postoperative implant-associated infections. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Noore J.,West Virginia University | Noore A.,West Virginia University | Li B.,West Virginia University | Li B.,Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

The increasing resistance of bacteria to conventional antibiotics and the challenges posed by intracellular bacteria, which may be responsible for chronic and recurrent infections, have driven the need for advanced antimicrobial drugs for effective elimination of both extra- and intracellular pathogens. The purpose of this study was to determine the killing efficacy of cationic antimicrobial peptide LL-37 compared to conventional antibiotics against extra- and intracellular Staphylococcus aureus. Bacterial killing assays and an infection model of osteoblasts and S. aureus were studied to determine the bacterial killing efficacy of LL-37 and conventional antibiotics against extra- and intracellular S. aureus. We found that LL-37 was effective in killing extracellular S. aureus at nanomolar concentrations, while lactoferricin B was effective at micromolar concentrations and doxycycline and cefazolin at millimolar concentrations. LL-37 was surprisingly more effective in killing the clinical strain than in killing an ATCC strain of S. aureus. Moreover, LL-37 was superior to conventional antibiotics in eliminating intracellular S. aureus. The kinetic studies further revealed that LL-37 was fast in eliminating both extra- and intracellular S. aureus. Therefore, LL-37 was shown to be very potent and prompt in eliminating both extra- and intracellular S. aureus and was more effective in killing extra- and intracellular S. aureus than commonly used conventional antibiotics. LL-37 could potentially be used to treat chronic and recurrent infections due to its effectiveness in eliminating not only extracellular but also intracellular pathogens. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source

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