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Ibrahim S.,Marvell Semiconductor Inc. | Razavi B.,University of California at Los Angeles
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits | Year: 2011

The power consumption of wireline circuits has become increasingly more critical as the pin count and data rate rise. This paper describes a power scaling methodology and a new half-rate speculative architecture for decision-feedback equalizers (DFEs) to relax the speed-power trade-offs. Designed in 90-nm CMOS technology, a 20-Gb/s prototype consisting of a linear equalizer and a one-tap DFE compensates for the loss of an 18-in FR4 trace while drawing 40 mW from a 1-V supply. © 2011 IEEE.

Rong B.,Marvell Semiconductor Inc. | Ephremides A.,University of Maryland University College
IEEE Transactions on Information Theory | Year: 2012

We investigate the impact of a protocol-level cooperation idea in a wireless multiple-access system. By dynamically and opportunistically exploiting spatial diversity among the N source users, a packet is delivered to the common destination through either a direct link or through cooperative relaying by intermediate source nodes that have a statistically better channel to the destination. The traffic burstiness at the source is taken into account, and the performance metrics of the stable throughput region and delay are evaluated for the case of packet-erasure channels. We consider conflict-free, work-conserving transmission policies as well as plain time-division multiple-access policy. We establish that the stable throughput regions under both classes of cooperative policies are the same, which strictly contain the stable throughput regions achieved without cooperation. Moreover, the optimal policy for minimizing the average delay among the class of all cooperative work-conserving policies is determined. Then, in the case of two users, the closed-form delay expressions are explicitly derived as well. Our results indicate that cooperation can significantly reduce delay for both users. © 1963-2012 IEEE.

Kim J.,Marvell Semiconductor Inc. | Buckwalter J.F.,University of California at San Diego
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits | Year: 2012

A fully-integrated Q-band (40-45 GHz) bidirectional transceiver is demonstrated in a 0.12-μm SiGe BiCMOS technology. The RF front-end design eliminates the need for transmit/receive switches by demonstrating a novel PA/LNA circuit. The transceiver has a transmit conversion gain of 35 dB with a 3-dB bandwidth of 4 GHz. The OP1dB is 8.5 dBm and Psat is 9.5 dBm. The transceiver has a receive conversion gain of 34 dB with a 3-dB bandwidth of 3 GHz. The noise figure is 4.7 dB and OP1dB is - 5 dBm at 43 GHz. The chip consumes 119.4 mW when transmitting and 54 mW when receiving, and overall chip size is 1.6 mm× 0.8 mm including pads. To the author's knowledge, this work represents the first switchless millimeter-wave bidirectional transceiver in a CMOS or BiCMOS process. © 2011 IEEE.

Kim J.,University of California at San Diego | Kim J.,Marvell Semiconductor Inc. | Buckwalter J.F.,University of California at San Diego
IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits | Year: 2012

A low-power, 40-Gb/s optical transceiver front-end is demonstrated in a 45-nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) CMOS process. Both single-ended and differential optical modulators are demonstrated with floating-body transistors to reach output swings of more than 2 V PP and 4 V PP, respectively. A single-ended gain of 7.6 dB is measured over 33 GHz. The optical receiver consists of a transimpedance amplifier (TIA) and post-amplifier with 55 ω dB of transimpedance over 30 GHz. The group-delay variation is 3.9 ps over the 3-dB bandwidth and the average input-referred noise density is 20.5 pA/√Hz. The TIA consumes 9 mWfrom a 1-V supply for a transimpedance figure of merit of 1875ω/pJ. This represents the lowest power consumption for a transmitter and receiver operating at 40 Gb/s in a CMOS process. © 2012 IEEE.

Zhang L.,Marvell Semiconductor Inc. | Wang H.,AT AndT Shannon Laboratories | Li T.,Michigan State University
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2013

This is Part I of a two-part paper that considers anti-jamming system design in wireless networks based on message-driven frequency hopping (MDFH), a highly efficient spread spectrum technique. In this paper, we first analyze the performance of MDFH under hostile jamming. It is observed that while MDFH is robust under strong jamming, it experiences considerable performance losses under disguised jamming from sources that mimic the true signal. To overcome this limitation, we propose an anti-jamming MDFH (AJ-MDFH) system. The main idea is to transmit a secure ID sequence along with the information stream. The ID sequence is generated through a cryptographic algorithm using the shared secret between the transmitter and the receiver, it is then exploited by the receiver for effective signal extraction. It is shown that AJ-MDFH can effectively reduce the performance degradation caused by disguised jamming, and is also robust under strong jamming. In addition, we extend AJ-MDFH to the multi-carrier case, which can increase the system efficiency and jamming resistance significantly through jamming randomization and frequency diversity, and can readily be used as a collision-free multiple access system. Part II of the paper focuses on the capacity analysis of MDFH and AJ-MDFH under disguised jamming. © 2013 IEEE.

Oksman V.,Lantiq | Zhang J.,Marvell Semiconductor Inc.
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2011

Narrowband power line communications (NB-PLC) systems operating in the frequency range 3-500 kHz were developed and used in the past few decades for telecommunications, metering, control, and automation. Recently, OFDM-based NB-PLC solutions known as G3 and PRIME came to the market after a long monopoly of single-carrier technologies, offering higher bit rates, robustness, and flexibility, which are vital for smart grid applications. However, it was realized that an international standard is important to ensure worldwide interoperable products and avoid market fragmentation. In the beginning of 2010, the IEEE Standards Association and ITU-T started standardization of NBPLC technologies based on OFDM, launching the P1901.2 and G.hnem projects, respectively. This article gives a technical overview of the ITU-T G.hnem standard, which defines a unified NB-PLC OFDM-based technology targeting multiple smart grid applications: smart metering, distributed automation, in-home energy management, generic home automation, car charging, and others, using IPv6 as the main networking protocol. ITU-T Recommendations G.9955 (G.hnem physical layer) and G.9956 (G.hnem data link layer) were consented for approval in February 2011; their final approval is expected in December 2011. © 2006 IEEE.

Zhang L.,Marvell Semiconductor Inc. | Li T.,Michigan State University
IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications | Year: 2013

This is part II of a two-part paper that explores efficient anti-jamming system design based on message-driven frequency hopping (MDFH). In Part I, we point out that under disguised jamming, where the jammer mimics the authorized signal, MDFH experiences considerable performance losses like other wireless systems. To overcome this limitation, we propose an anti-jamming MDFH scheme (AJ-MDFH), which enhances the jamming resistance of MDFH by enabling shared randomness between the transmitter and the receiver using an AES generated ID sequence transmitted along the information stream. In part II, using the arbitrarily varying channel (AVC) model, we analyze the capacity of MDFH and AJ-MDFH under disguised jamming. We show that under the worst case disguised jamming, as long as the secure ID sequence is unavailable to the jammer (which is ensured by AES), the AVC corresponding to AJ-MDFH is nonsymmetrizable. This implies that the deterministic capacity of AJ-MDFH with respect to the average probability of error is positive. On the other hand, due to lack of shared randomness, the AVC corresponding to MDFH is symmetric, resulting in zero deterministic capacity. We further calculate the capacity of AJ-MDFH and show that it converges as the ID constellation size goes to infinity. © 2013 IEEE.

Marvell Semiconductor Inc. | Date: 2013-02-18

An amplifier includes a first switch and a second switch each having a first terminal and a second terminal. The first terminals of the first and second switches respectively communicate with a first tank circuit and a second tank circuit. The second terminal of the second switch communicates with the second terminal of the first switch. A first capacitance having a first terminal connected directly to (i) the second terminal of the first switch and (ii) the second terminal of the second switch. A second terminal of the first capacitance is connected directly to a first input voltage of the amplifier. A first load is connected across (i) the first terminal of the first switch and (ii) the first terminal of the second switch. The amplifier generates a first output across the first load.

Marvell Semiconductor Inc. | Date: 2012-01-20

Method to identify a current drawn by a fluorescent lamp in a circuit. Methods include receiving a voltage supplied to a fluorescent lamp drawing a current in response to the voltage, digitally sampling the voltage at a sampling frequency and associating a first time stamp with a voltage value representing one of a maximum or minimum value in observed voltage, receiving the current after receiving the voltage, digitally sampling the current at the sampling frequency and associating multiple second time stamps with a corresponding multiple current values, identifying a second time stamp, a difference between the first time stamp and the second time stamp being within a threshold, and identifying a current value associated with the second time stamp as the current drawn by the fluorescent lamp.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IAPP | Award Amount: 992.64K | Year: 2010

The project aims at using adaptive optimization to reduce energy consumption in a multimode wireless communication terminal. This is becoming increasingly important to reduce carbon emission and pollution associated with battery disposal especially considering the projected growth of wireless networks. The idea is to use hardware reconfigurability not only for multi mode/multi standard operation, but also to adapt the performance of the terminal to the requirement of the user in the changing environment. The main innovation compared to existing adaptive transmission techniques is to dynamically configure the system to achieve the Quality of Service required by the user instead of trying to maximize the throughput. This calls for significant progress in the re-configurability of all the circuits of the terminal and on the estimation of the channel operating conditions requiring specific skills in electronic design and communication systems. The research will concentrate on these aspects with a special emphasis on the reconfiguration of the analog/RF portion of the transceiver. Extending the reconfigurability of a mobile terminal in addition to making it more eco friendly, also allows to implement a commercially competitive multi-mode multi-standard personal communication device which is a key enabling technology to achieve a broad connection for all at any time and any place. The teams involved focus on different areas of expertise: University of Pavia and the University of Lund in RF integrated circuit design, Marvell on the definition of the targets and on the industrial compatibility of the solutions, Ericsson on communications and system aspects. They are all well known for their contributions to the design and implementation of electronic circuits and systems for mobile terminals. As such they represent the proper starting point for a work that will require a deep-interaction among all fields of expertise.

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