Okazaki, Japan
Okazaki, Japan

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Wachi S.,Tohoku University | Kanmani P.,Tohoku University | Tomosada Y.,Tohoku University | Kobayashi H.,Tohoku University | And 11 more authors.
Molecular Nutrition and Food Research | Year: 2014

Scope: Immunobiotics are known tomodulate intestinal immune responses by regulating Tolllike receptor (TLR) signaling pathways, which are responsible for the induction of cytokines and chemokines in response to microbial-associated molecular patterns. However, little is known about the immunomodulatory activity of compounds or molecules from immunobiotics. Methods and results: We evaluated whether Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. delbrueckii TUA4408L (Ld) or its extracellular polysaccharide (EPS): acidic EPS (APS) and neutral EPS (NPS), modulated the response of porcine intestinal epitheliocyte (PIE) cells against Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) 987P. The roles of TLR2, TLR4, and TLR negative regulators in the immunoregulatory effects were also studied. ETEC-induced inflammatory cytokines were downregulated when PIE cells were prestimulated with both Ld or EPSs. Ld, APS, and NPS inhibited ETECmediatedmitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation by upregulating TLR negative regulators. The capability of Ld to suppress inflammatory cytokines was diminished when PIE cells were blocked with anti-TLR2 antibody, while APS failed to suppress inflammatory cytokines when cells were treated with anti-TLR4 antibody. Induction of Ca2+ fluxes in TLR knockdown cells confirmed that TLR2 plays a principal role in the immunomodulatory action of Ld, while the activity of APS is mediated by TLR4. In addition, NPS activity depends on both TLR4 and TLR2. Conclusion: Ld and its EPS have the potential to be used for the development of antiinflammatory functional foods to prevent intestinal diseases in both humans and animals. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co.


Shimoyamada M.,Miyagi University | Mogami S.,Miyagi University | Tsuzuki K.,Marusan ai Co. | Honda Y.,Marusan ai Co.
Journal of Food Processing and Preservation | Year: 2014

The effect of milling and pressing soybeans at high temperatures (50-90C) was examined for laboratory-scale soymilk preparation. Soymilk that was milled and pressed at high temperatures showed more precipitate and a slightly lower protein content. The surface sulfhydryl content and surface hydrophobicity of the soymilk protein increased with milling temperature, which indicates some acceleration of the thermal denaturation of proteins. Ultracentrifugation and laser diffraction particle size analysis of the soymilk showed that milling at 90C resulted in highly dispersed protein aggregates and emulsions. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Kobayashi M.,University of Hyogo | Egusa S.,MARUSAN AI Co. | Fukuda M.,University of Hyogo
Nutrients | Year: 2014

A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


Hirahata R.,University of Hyogo | Kobayashi M.,University of Hyogo | Egusa S.,Marusan ai Co. | Sakakibara R.,Marusan ai Co. | Fukuda M.,University of Hyogo
Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi | Year: 2013

We investigated the effect of lactic fermented soymilk in improving hepatic lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats, aged 7 weeks, were fed a very high lipid diet (VC diet) or moderately high lipid diet (MC diet) for 5 weeks. The VC diet contained 30% triacylglycerol (TG) and 0. 5% cholesterol; for VF diet (very high lipid diet with fermented soymilk), 25.0% of the VC diet was replaced with fermented soymilk. The MC diet contained 15% TG and 0.125% cholesterol; for MF diet (moderately high lipid diet with fermented soymilk), 22.2% of the MC diet was replaced with fermented soymilk. Only hepatic crude lipid and cholesterol contents were significantly suppressed in the VF group, whereas plasma total cholesterol (TC) and TG levels, as well as hepatic crude lipid, cholesterol and TG contents were significantly suppressed in the MF group. There was no down-regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism-related gene expression in the VF group; in contrast, the expression of FAS was down-regulated in the MF group. These results suggested that the effect of fermented soymilk in improving lipid metabolism was small in rats fed the VC diet, likely due to reduced hepatic metabolic function caused by lipid overloading, whereas ingestion of fermented soymilk effectively suppressed the accumulation of hepatic lipid and the elevation of plasma lipid levels in rats fed aMC diet.


PubMed | University of Hyogo, MARUSAN AI Co. and Mukogawa Women's University
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Nutrients | Year: 2014

A high cholesterol diet induces dyslipidemia. This study investigated whether isoflavone aglycones in lactic acid-fermented soy milk (LFS) improve lipid metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged seven weeks were fed an AIN-93G diet, a 1% cholesterol diet (a high cholesterol diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 4% isoflavone extract of LFS (LFS extract diet), a high-cholesterol diet containing 19.4% ethanol-washed LFS (ethanol-washed LFS diet, isoflavone-poor diet), or a high cholesterol diet containing 23.2% intact LFS (intact LFS diet) for five weeks. The plasma total cholesterol (TC) level was increased in the rats fed the LFS extract diet compared with those fed the high cholesterol diet. The TC level was decreased by the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. The cholesterol-lowering effect was stronger in the rats fed the intact LFS diet than those fed the ethanol-washed LFS diet. The plasma triglyceride (TG) level was unchanged in the rats fed the LFS extract diet, but it decreased in rats fed the intact LFS and ethanol-washed LFS diets. Although, compared with the high cholesterol diet, the LFS extract and ethanol-washed LFS diets did not reduce hepatic cholesterol and TG, both levels were remarkably lowered by the intact LFS diet. These results suggest that the improvement in lipid metabolism of rats fed a high-cholesterol diet containing LFS isoflavone aglycones is not due to an independent effect but due to a cooperative effect with soy protein.


Kobayashi M.,Mukogawa Women's University | Sakakibara R.,Marusan Ai Co. | Egusa S.,Marusan Ai Co. | Fukuda M.,Mukogawa Women's University
Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi | Year: 2013

We investigated the effects of different isoflavone aglycone ratios in lactic acid-fermented soymilk on hepatic lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat and high cholesterol diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (7 weeks old) were fed a control diet (AIN-93G), high fat and high cholesterol diet, or high fat and high cholesterol diet containing fermented soymilk with a low isoflavone aglycone ratio or fermented soymilk with a high isoflavone aglycone ratio for 5 weeks. Both lactic acid-fermented soymilks exhibited lipid metabolism-modulating function, and the function was stronger in fermented soymilk with a high isoflavone aglycone ratio than in that with a low isoflavone aglycone ratio. It was proposed that isoflavone aglycones stimulated the lipid metabolism- modulation effects in liver.


Hirahata R.,Mukogawa Women's University | Kobayashi M.,Mukogawa Women's University | Egusa S.,Marusan ai Co. | Sakakibara R.,Marusan ai Co. | Fukuda M.,Mukogawa Women's University
Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi | Year: 2012

Soy foods are known to be effective for the amelioration of lipid metabolism. We investigated the effect of fermented soymilk on lipid metabolism in rats fed a high fat diet. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 weeks were fed either a control diet (AIN-93G), high fat diet including 28.5 % powdered beef tallow (60 % fat energy), or test diet where 24.1 % of the high fat diet was replaced with fermented soymilk (10 % soy protein in diet) for 5 weeks. Although it was previously reported that the plasma triglyceride level in rats fed a normal diet (AIN-93G) was not decreased by the ingestion of fermented soymilk, it was found in the present study that the level of rats fed a high fat diet containing fermented soymilk was significantly suppressed compared with those of rats fed a high fat diet. Although the hepatic cholesterol level in rats fed a high fat diet was reduced by the ingestion of fermented soymilk, a significant decrease in plasma total cholesterol level, to the level in rats fed a normal diet, was not observed. These lipid metabolism-modulation effects in rats fed a high fat diet seem to depend on the physiological action of fermented soymilk supplemented to the diet.


Kobayashi M.,Mukogawa Women's University | Harada T.,Mukogawa Women's University | Takagi N.,Mukogawa Women's University | Tsuzuki K.,Marusan Ai Co. | And 2 more authors.
Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry | Year: 2012

We examined the effects of lactic acid fermentation of soymilk on the lipid profile and lipid metabolism-related gene expression in rat liver. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 weeks were fed a control diet (AIN-93), soymilk diet, or fermented soymilk diet for 1 week or 5 weeks. The hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol contents in the soymilk (SM) group and the fermented soymilk (FSM) group were significantly lower than those in the control group after 5 weeks, but these changes had not become apparent until after 1 week. The fatty acid synthesisrelated genes were more markedly down-regulated after 1 week than after 5 weeks, whereas the cytochrome p450 family 7 subfamily a polypeptide 1 (CYP7al) gene related to cholesterol catabolism was more markedly up-regulated after 5 weeks than after 1 week. This upregulation was higher in the FSM group than in the SM group. It is assumed that the bioactive components produced by lactic acid fermentation induced the upregulation of CYP7a1.


Takagi N.,Mukogawa Women's University | Tsuzuki K.,Marusan Ai Co. | Fukuda M.,Mukogawa Women's University
Food Science and Technology Research | Year: 2010

Polyamines, putrescine, spermidine and spermine, are important constituents of all mammalian cells and are essentially involved in a variety of regulatory step during normal and malignant cell proliferation. Okara and soymilk fermented with Lactobacillus were combined to form soy yogurt, which is rich in polyamine content. We investigated the effect of soy yogurt on polyamine levels in intestines and blood of rats. The ingestion of soy yogurt induced the increase of mucosal polyamine level in small intestine. Although the polyamine level in cecum was increased by the ingestion of soy yogurt, the polyamine levels in large intestine and blood were not increased. It was found that the ingestion of polyamine-rich soy yogurt could affect the polyamine level in only small intestinal mucosa. The large intestine seems to regulate the polyamine level to prevent own cells from hyperproliferation. It was assumed that blood kept polyamine level constant in spite of the level changes in intestines.


Kobayashi M.,Mukogawa Women's University | Hirahata R.,Mukogawa Women's University | Egusa S.,Marusan Ai Co. | Fukuda M.,Mukogawa Women's University
Nutrients | Year: 2012

The effect of fermented soymilk on rats fed a high cholesterol diet was investigated to clarify the cholesterol-lowering function. Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 7 weeks were fed a control diet (1% cholesterol, high cholesterol diet), high cholesterol diet containing 11.7% fermented soymilk diet (5% soy protein as final concentration, F-5), or high cholesterol diet containing 23.4% fermented soymilk diet (10% soy protein as final concentration, F-10) for 5 weeks. The liver weight and fat mass were decreased by the ingestion of fermented soymilk. The hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels in the F-5 and F-10 groups were significantly lowered compared to those in the control group. The plasma total cholesterol level of the F-10 group was significantly decreased. The expression of SREBP-2, a cholesterol synthesis-related gene, was significantly decreased in liver of the F-5 group, but the expression of CYP7a1, a cholesterol catabolism-related gene, was significantly increased. These results suggest that fermented soymilk can modulate the cholesterol metabolism in rats fed a high cholesterol diet. © 2012 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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