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Bearden A.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | Bearden A.,University of Southern California | Abad C.,Martin Martin Inc. | Gangnon R.,University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013

Context: Vitamin D is increasingly recognized as an important immunomodulator. Lower levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25[OH]2D) are observed in persons living with HIV. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of 25(OH)D, and 1,25(OH)2D to HIV viral load, and CD4+ T cells in HIV-infected adults. Design: This was a cross-sectional study completed between January 2010 and April 2011. Setting: This study was conducted with volunteers who received HIV care in Wisconsin at either a University-based HIV clinic or an urban community HIV clinic. Patients: One hundred twelve adults with HIV infection participated in this study. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome for this study was the relationship between 1,25(OH)2D and HIV viral load. Secondary outcomes included relationships between 25(OH)D and HIV viral load, 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D to CD4+ T cells, and predictors of vitamin D deficiency. Results: The 112 volunteers included 24 women and 3 transgender individuals; 68% were from the university clinic, and 32% were from the urban clinic. Mean age was 44.2 years. The mean 25(OH)D level was 22.5 ng/mL; mean 1,25(OH)2D level was 23.5 pg/mL. Twenty-two percent had 25(OH)D ≤10 ng/mL; 53% had values <20 ng/mL, and 73% were ≤30 ng/mL. There was no association between vitamin D and CD4. A nonlinear relationship between viral load and 1,25(OH)2D was found. For 1,25(OH) 2D below 32 pg/mL, for each 10pg/mL decrease in 1,25(OH) 2D, (log10) viral load increased by 0.84 (95% CI: 0.16-1.51, P = .015). For 1,25(OH)2D above 32 pg/mL, for each 10 pg/mL increase in 1,25(OH)2D, (log10) viral load increased by 0.36 (95% CI: 0.15-0.57, P = .0009). Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency was common in this HIV population, as seen in other HIV cohorts. A novel, U-shaped relationship between 1,25(OH)2D and viral load, with the lowest and highest 1,25(OH) 2D levels seen with high viral loads, was found and deserves further study. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.


Zhang S.,Chongqing University | Zhang S.,University of Florida | Xia Y.X.,Chongqing University | Kim B.,Martin Martin Inc. | Keyhani N.O.,University of Florida
Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2011

The entomogenous filamentous fungus, Beauveria bassiana expresses two hydrophobin genes, hyd1 and hyd2, hypothesized to be involved in cell surface hydrophobicity, adhesion, virulence, and to constitute the protective spore coat structure known as the rodlet layer. Targeted gene inactivation of hyd1 resulted in seemingly 'bald' conidia that contained significantly altered surface fascicles or bundles. These cells displayed decreased spore hydrophobicity, loss of water mediated dispersal, changes in surface carbohydrate epitopes and β-1,3-glucan distribution, lowered virulence in insect bioassays, but no effect on adhesion. In contrast, Δhyd2 mutants retained distorted surface bundles, but truncated/incomplete rodlets could be seen within the bundles. Δhyd2 conidia displayed both decreased cell surface hydrophobicity and adhesion, but the mutant was unaffected in virulence. The double Δhyd1Δhyd2 mutant was distinct from the single mutants, lacking both bundles and rodlets, and displaying additively decreased cell surface hydrophobicity, reduced cell attachment and lowered virulence than the Δhyd1 mutant. Epitope tagged constructs of the proteins were used to examine the expression and distribution of the proteins and to demonstrate the continued presence of Hyd2 in the Δhyd1 strain and vice versa. The implications of our results with respect to fascicle and rodlet assembly on the spore surface are discussed. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Vane L.M.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Alvarez F.R.,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency | Rosenblum L.,Martin Martin Inc. | Govindaswamy S.,Lakeshore Engineering Services Inc.
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research | Year: 2013

A hybrid process integrating vapor stripping with vapor compression and vapor permeation membrane separation, termed Membrane Assisted Vapor Stripping (MAVS), was evaluated for recovery and dehydration of ethanol from aqueous solution as an alternative to conventional distillation-molecular sieve processes. Ethanol removal/drying performance of the MAVS system with binary ethanol-water mixtures and a yeast fermentation broth were evaluated and the fate of secondary fermentation products in the system was assessed. Simple alcohols, esters, and organic acids displayed varying degrees of recovery in the vapor stripping based on the relative vapor-liquid partitioning of the compounds. All volatilized organic compounds were concentrated to the same degree in the membrane step. Membrane permeance, permselectivity, and overall energy usage of the hybrid process were the same with the fermentation broth as with binary ethanol-water solutions. The MAVS system required less than half the energy of a distillation-molecular sieve system. © 2012 American Chemical Society.


Purpose The purpose of the National Diabetes Education Practice Survey (NPS) of the American Association of Diabetes Educators (AADE) is to describe the current diabetes education practice and specific interventions and responsibilities of diabetes educators in the United States. Method The 2010 NPS contained 52 items addressing diabetes education program structure, processes, interventions, outcomes, quality improvement, and adoption of health care reform models and AADE guidelines. The survey was hosted online, with 2513 AADE members participating. The 2010 results were compared with those from previous surveys.ResultsThe majority of 2010 respondents provided diabetes education at one site, most commonly in a clinical outpatient/managed care setting. A wide range of services, including patient support, were provided. Team member functions, hours spent, and instructional methods also varied widely. More than half of programs measured at least one behavioral and clinical outcome in 2010. Most programs engaged in quality improvement. Many respondents were unfamiliar with the patient-centered medical home and accountable care organization models. Conclusions The results highlight the need for educators to increase their reporting of outcomes. Educators are also urged to raise their knowledge of health care delivery reform models. Wider adoption of AADE diabetes education practice guidelines will help ensure effective team involvement and optimal patient-centered education. Despite an increase in hours spent on diabetes self-management education and training (DSME/T) and clinical functions in diabetes education, many programs operated at a financial loss in 2010, underscoring the need for improved reimbursement of these services. Continuation of the NPS biannually is recommended. © 2012 American Association of Diabetes Educators; Published by SAGE Publications.


Anderson T.,Martin Martin Inc.
IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society, AP-S International Symposium (Digest) | Year: 2014

Plasma frequency selective surfaces (FSS) [1]-[2] use plasma instead of metal for the FSS elements. Frequency selective surfaces have been used for filtering electromagnetic waves and Munk [3] wrote a comprehensive book on the subject. In conventional metal FSS, each layer has to be modeled using numerical methods and the layers are stacked in such a way to create the desired filtering. Genetic algorithms are sometimes used to determine the stacking needed for the desired filtering. This is a complicated and numerically expensive process. The plasma frequency selective surfaces can be tuned to a desired filtering by varying any or all of the density, size, shape, and spacing of the plasma elements. © 2014 IEEE.

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