The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg , also referred to as MLU, is a public, research-oriented university in the cities of Halle and Wittenberg within Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. MLU offers German and international courses leading to academic degrees such as B.A., B.Sc., M.A., M.Sc., doctoral degrees and Habilitation.The university was created in 1817 through the merger of the University of Wittenberg and the University of Halle . The university is named after the Protestant reformer Martin Luther, who was a professor in Wittenberg. Today, the university itself is located in Halle, while the Leucorea Foundation in Wittenberg serves as MLU’s convention centre for seminars as well as for academic and political conferences. Leucorea also hosts the Wittenberg Centre for Global Ethics, founded in 1998 at the initiative of Andrew Young, former US Ambassador to the United Nations, and Hans-Dietrich Genscher, former German Foreign Minister. Both Halle and Wittenberg are about one hour from Berlin via the Berlin–Halle railway, which offers Intercity-Express trains. Wikipedia.
Junker B.H.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2014
Quantitative information about metabolic networks has been mainly obtained at the level of metabolite contents, transcript abundance, and enzyme activities. However, the active process of metabolism is represented by the flow of matter through the pathways. These metabolic fluxes can be predicted by Flux Balance Analysis or determined experimentally by 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis. These relatively complicated and time-consuming methods have recently seen significant improvements at the level of coverage and throughput. Metabolic models have developed from single cell models into whole-organism dynamic models. Advances in lab automation and data handling have significantly increased the throughput of flux measurements. This review summarizes advances to increase coverage and throughput of metabolic flux analysis in plants. © 2014.
Saalwachter K.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Chemphyschem : a European journal of chemical physics and physical chemistry | Year: 2013
This review addresses the NMR spectroscopy study of molecular structure and dynamics by way of homonuclear dipole-dipole couplings by relying on their orientation and direct distance dependence. The study of homonuclear couplings as opposed to heteronuclear couplings poses specific challenges. On the one hand, two like spins cannot be independently manipulated easily, which means that simple shift-refocusing concepts by using hard π pulses cannot be used to cope with potentially large chemical-shift dispersions at the high fields used today. On the other hand, the noncommutativity of the different pair Hamiltonians in a multispin system leads to complications associated with the isolation of specific pair couplings while minimizing the influence of the other spins. In particular, the so-called dipolar-truncation effect challenges the observation of weak couplings of interest in the presence of stronger ones. Recent advances in determining homonuclear dipole-dipole coupling constants are reviewed, stressing the use of double-quantum spectroscopy approaches and their similarity to the popular heteronuclear rotational-echo double-resonance experiment. Particular emphasis is put on corrections for the influence of transverse relaxation effects on the measured data, and the handling of distribution effects as well as potential dynamic heterogeneities in complex substances. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Tschierske C.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Topics in Current Chemistry | Year: 2012
The effects of perfluorinated and semiperfluorinated hydrocarbon units on the self-assembly of rod-like, disc-like, polycatenar, taper-and star-shaped, dendritic, and bent-core liquid crystalline (LC) materials is reviewed. The influence of fluorinated segments is analyzed on the basis of their contributions to the cohesive energy density, molecular shape, conformational flexibility, micro-segregation, space filling, and interface curvature. Though the focus is on recent progress in the last decade, previous main contributions, general aspects of perfluorinated organic molecules, and the basics of LC self-assembly are also briefly discussed to provide a complete overall picture. The main focus is on structure-property-relations and the use of micro-segregation to tailor mesophase morphologies. Especially polyphilic molecules with perfluorinated segments provide new modes of LC self-assembly, leading to ordered fluids with periodic multi-compartment structures and enhanced complexity compared to previously known systems. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Buttner D.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews | Year: 2012
Flagellar and translocation-associated type III secretion (T3S) systems are present in most Gram-negative plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria and are often essential for bacterial motility or pathogenicity. The architectures of the complex membrane-spanning secretion apparatuses of both systems are similar, but they are associated with different extracellular appendages, including the flagellar hook and filament or the needle/pilus structures of translocation-associated T3S systems. The needle/pilus is connected to a bacterial translocon that is inserted into the host plasma membrane and mediates the transkingdom transport of bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. During the last 3 to 5 years, significant progress has been made in the characterization of membrane-associated core components and extracellular structures of T3S systems. Furthermore, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators that control T3S gene expression and substrate specificity have been described. Given the architecture of the T3S system, it is assumed that extracellular components of the secretion apparatus are secreted prior to effector proteins, suggesting that there is a hierarchy in T3S. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of T3S system components and associated control proteins from both plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Scheer R.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2012
In the early 1990s, CuInS 2 thin film solar cells with >10% efficiency had been developed. Since then, they are limited by an open-circuit voltage which is too low for the band gap of CuInS 2. Recombination at the CdS/CuInS 2 interface was made responsible for this shortcoming. This was concluded from two experimental results: a conduction band cliff found at the buffer/absorber interface and activation energy of the saturation current being smaller than the absorber band gap energy. However, replacing the CdS buffer layer in the Mo/CuInS 2/buffer/ZnO heterostructure solar cell with wide gap buffers did not lead to substantially higher V oc. Also the activation energy was unaltered. In this paper, we discuss interface and bulk aspects of CuInS 2 and Cu(In,Ga)S 2 cells, try to give a consistent picture and make suggestions for novel experiments. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.