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Halle (Saale), Germany

The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg , also referred to as MLU, is a public, research-oriented university in the cities of Halle and Wittenberg within Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. MLU offers German and international courses leading to academic degrees such as B.A., B.Sc., M.A., M.Sc., doctoral degrees and Habilitation.The university was created in 1817 through the merger of the University of Wittenberg and the University of Halle . The university is named after the Protestant reformer Martin Luther, who was a professor in Wittenberg. Today, the university itself is located in Halle, while the Leucorea Foundation in Wittenberg serves as MLU’s convention centre for seminars as well as for academic and political conferences. Leucorea also hosts the Wittenberg Centre for Global Ethics, founded in 1998 at the initiative of Andrew Young, former US Ambassador to the United Nations, and Hans-Dietrich Genscher, former German Foreign Minister. Both Halle and Wittenberg are about one hour from Berlin via the Berlin–Halle railway, which offers Intercity-Express trains. Wikipedia.

Junker B.H.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Quantitative information about metabolic networks has been mainly obtained at the level of metabolite contents, transcript abundance, and enzyme activities. However, the active process of metabolism is represented by the flow of matter through the pathways. These metabolic fluxes can be predicted by Flux Balance Analysis or determined experimentally by 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis. These relatively complicated and time-consuming methods have recently seen significant improvements at the level of coverage and throughput. Metabolic models have developed from single cell models into whole-organism dynamic models. Advances in lab automation and data handling have significantly increased the throughput of flux measurements. This review summarizes advances to increase coverage and throughput of metabolic flux analysis in plants. © 2014. Source

Tschierske C.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Topics in Current Chemistry | Year: 2012

The effects of perfluorinated and semiperfluorinated hydrocarbon units on the self-assembly of rod-like, disc-like, polycatenar, taper-and star-shaped, dendritic, and bent-core liquid crystalline (LC) materials is reviewed. The influence of fluorinated segments is analyzed on the basis of their contributions to the cohesive energy density, molecular shape, conformational flexibility, micro-segregation, space filling, and interface curvature. Though the focus is on recent progress in the last decade, previous main contributions, general aspects of perfluorinated organic molecules, and the basics of LC self-assembly are also briefly discussed to provide a complete overall picture. The main focus is on structure-property-relations and the use of micro-segregation to tailor mesophase morphologies. Especially polyphilic molecules with perfluorinated segments provide new modes of LC self-assembly, leading to ordered fluids with periodic multi-compartment structures and enhanced complexity compared to previously known systems. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Buttner D.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews | Year: 2012

Flagellar and translocation-associated type III secretion (T3S) systems are present in most Gram-negative plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria and are often essential for bacterial motility or pathogenicity. The architectures of the complex membrane-spanning secretion apparatuses of both systems are similar, but they are associated with different extracellular appendages, including the flagellar hook and filament or the needle/pilus structures of translocation-associated T3S systems. The needle/pilus is connected to a bacterial translocon that is inserted into the host plasma membrane and mediates the transkingdom transport of bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. During the last 3 to 5 years, significant progress has been made in the characterization of membrane-associated core components and extracellular structures of T3S systems. Furthermore, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators that control T3S gene expression and substrate specificity have been described. Given the architecture of the T3S system, it is assumed that extracellular components of the secretion apparatus are secreted prior to effector proteins, suggesting that there is a hierarchy in T3S. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of T3S system components and associated control proteins from both plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Scheer R.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Progress in Photovoltaics: Research and Applications | Year: 2012

In the early 1990s, CuInS 2 thin film solar cells with >10% efficiency had been developed. Since then, they are limited by an open-circuit voltage which is too low for the band gap of CuInS 2. Recombination at the CdS/CuInS 2 interface was made responsible for this shortcoming. This was concluded from two experimental results: a conduction band cliff found at the buffer/absorber interface and activation energy of the saturation current being smaller than the absorber band gap energy. However, replacing the CdS buffer layer in the Mo/CuInS 2/buffer/ZnO heterostructure solar cell with wide gap buffers did not lead to substantially higher V oc. Also the activation energy was unaltered. In this paper, we discuss interface and bulk aspects of CuInS 2 and Cu(In,Ga)S 2 cells, try to give a consistent picture and make suggestions for novel experiments. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

Csuk R.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Patents | Year: 2014

Introduction: Betulinic acid (BA) is a triterpenoid that can be obtained from renewable resources. BA is cytotoxic to many human tumor cell lines mainly by apoptosis but cell death might also be triggered by nonapoptotic pathways. Many derivatives have been synthesized to improve the very weak solubility of parent BA and to increase its cytotoxicity as well as its selectivity toward tumor cells.Areas covered: A brief introduction into cancer is given reflecting the different pathways this disease might be treated using chemotherapy using natural product analogs especially triterpenes. The different ways of action of BA in cancer cells are discussed. Finally, this review describes the main synthetic modifications that have been performed and discusses, in short, the structure-activity relationships of these analogs, investigated between 2008 and 2013 including some important publications from early 2014.Expert opinion: A number of patents on BA analogs for the chemotherapy of cancer have been reported between 2008 and 2013. Most of these patents deal with modifications at positions C-3, C-20 and C-28. There are only a few compounds meeting the needs of a sufficient hydrosolubility, while retaining high cytotoxicity and selectivity toward tumor cells. Thus, one might expect that there will be some efforts in developing molecules of improved solubility and to find new and more efficient forms of administration (liposomes, transdermal application and nanoemulsions). An important sideline might be the treatment of the age-dependent degeneration of the macula, a possible caveat of which might be a certain degree of CNS toxicity associated with several derivatives of BA. © 2014 Informa UK, Ltd. Source

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