Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Halle (Saale), Germany

The Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg , also referred to as MLU, is a public, research-oriented university in the cities of Halle and Wittenberg within Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. MLU offers German and international courses leading to academic degrees such as B.A., B.Sc., M.A., M.Sc., doctoral degrees and Habilitation.The university was created in 1817 through the merger of the University of Wittenberg and the University of Halle . The university is named after the Protestant reformer Martin Luther, who was a professor in Wittenberg. Today, the university itself is located in Halle, while the Leucorea Foundation in Wittenberg serves as MLU’s convention centre for seminars as well as for academic and political conferences. Leucorea also hosts the Wittenberg Centre for Global Ethics, founded in 1998 at the initiative of Andrew Young, former US Ambassador to the United Nations, and Hans-Dietrich Genscher, former German Foreign Minister. Both Halle and Wittenberg are about one hour from Berlin via the Berlin–Halle railway, which offers Intercity-Express trains. Wikipedia.

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Modified poly(dicarboxylic acid multiol esters) are suitable as carriers for bioactive substances, especially as injectable implants, without further additives. The polymers can be directly injected without using an organic solvent. Furthermore, modified poly(dicarboxylic acid multiol esters) can be mixed with suitable biocompatible organic solvents and injected or realized as implants. The carriers are suitable for controlled active ingredient release in human and veterinary medicine.

Monoclonal antibodies, which can be produced in vitro, against cardiac epitopes of the human My-C are produced by generating myeloma cell clones that produce such specific antibodies having epitope specificity. These monoclonal antibodies allow, among other things, the creation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the specific, cross-reactivity-free quantitative determination of My-C in serum, plasma, whole blood or other body fluid. Specifically, a hybridoma cell clone producing a monoclonal antibody that detects and binds a cardiac epitope in the My-C is provided, which has no cross-reactivity with respect to the myosin-binding proteins of the skeletal muscles. The hybridoma cell line can be obtained by fusing myeloma cells with spleen cells of a test animal, in particular a mouse, immunized against recombinant My-C. The invention furthermore relates to epitope-specific antibodies produced by the hybridoma cell line, and to the use thereof.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: SC5-16-2014 | Award Amount: 15.99M | Year: 2015

Terrestrial and marine ecosystems provide essential services to human societies. Anthropogenic pressures, however, cause serious threat to ecosystems, leading to habitat degradation, increased risk of collapse and loss of ecosystem services. Knowledge-based conservation, management and restoration policies are needed to improve ecosystem benefits in face of increasing pressures. ECOPOTENTIAL makes significant progress beyond the state-of-the-art and creates a unified framework for ecosystem studies and management of protected areas (PA). ECOPOTENTIAL focuses on internationally recognized PAs in Europe and beyond in a wide range of biogeographic regions, and it includes UNESCO, Natura2000 and LTER sites and Large Marine Ecosystems. Best use of Earth Observation (EO) and monitoring data is enabled by new EO open-access ecosystem data services (ECOPERNICUS). Modelling approaches including information from EO data are devised, ecosystem services in current and future conditions are assessed and the requirements of future protected areas are defined. Conceptual approaches based on Essential Variables, Macrosystem Ecology and cross-scale interactions allow for a deeper understanding of the Earths Critical Zone. Open and interoperable access to data and knowledge is assured by a GEO Ecosystem Virtual Laboratory Platform, fully integrated in GEOSS. Support to transparent and knowledge-based conservation and management policies, able to include information from EO data, is developed. Knowledge gained in the PAs is upscaled to pan-European conditions and used for planning and management of future PAs. A permanent stakeholder consultancy group (GEO Ecosystem Community of Practice) will be created. Capacity building is pursued at all levels. SMEs are involved to create expertise leading to new job opportunities, ensuring long-term continuation of services. In summary, ECOPOTENTIAL uses the most advanced technologies to improve future ecosystem benefits for humankind.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: PHC-06-2014 | Award Amount: 3.00M | Year: 2015

Cigarette smoking is a main risk factor for premature disease, disability and death in Europe, especially in disadvantaged groups. Prevention of youth smoking is crucial to any strategy aimed at reducing this disease burden in the future. Several potentially effective strategies and programs are available to address youth smoking. However, in practice their impact often appears to be limited, especially among socially disadvantaged youth. There is very little systematic evidence on HOW smoking prevention strategies and programs worked in practice, and WHY some programs seemed to influence youth smoking only in some settings or groups. Yet, such evidence is urgently needed to enable decision makers to use the resources available for smoking prevention in the most effective and equitable way. We will generate such evidence by addressing these HOW and WHY questions in a comparative approach. For Finland, Ireland, Germany, Netherlands, Belgium, Italy and Portugal, we aim to assess HOW strategies and programs to prevent smoking in national and local settings affected smoking behaviour of 16 year olds. Moreover, we aim to assess HOW and WHY this impact varied according to city, school, gender, and socioeconomic group. We will be among the first to apply the approach of realist evaluation to the evaluation of preventive programs, and to use this innovative approach to compare European countries. We will acquire primary data that are comparable across these countries, including a quantitative survey among 10,000\ students, and in-depth structured interviews with students and various stakeholders. We expect to make a major contribution to the reduction of disease burden and health inequalities among future elderly populations. We will apply a new method for learning from different countries, and for generating the fine-grained evidence that is needed to develop youth smoking prevention programs that are context-sensitive, cost-effective and equity-oriented.

Brandsch M.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Current Opinion in Pharmacology | Year: 2013

The focus of this review is on the pharmaceutical relevance of the intestinal peptide transporter PepT1. The review is limited to the progress made in the field over the past two years. Much of this progress is being driven by the prevailing view that PepT1 can be used for drug delivery purposes. Studies have indeed shown that several drugs, prodrugs and drug candidates gain entry into the systemic circulation via PepT1. Very recent examples are prodrugs of zanamivir, oseltamivir and didanosine. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: MSCA-ITN-ETN | Phase: MSCA-ITN-2015-ETN | Award Amount: 3.65M | Year: 2016

The ETN has two aims: to a) train ESRs; b) investigate the The History of Human Freedom and Dignity in Western Civilization. a) The ETN will establish an innovative training programme which allows the ESRs to obtain specialist knowledge of a specific research topic and to obtain transferable skills enabling the students to apply their knowledge in non-academic institutions, e.g. dealing with social welfare, human resources, or legal /political institutes. The training program includes acquiring transferable skills via courses and via secondments in non-academic partner organisations. b) The thesis of the research is that the concept of the ideal modern Western European human being has its roots far back in the history of philosophy and theology. This ideal human being has the right to think, believe, and express itself freely about all matters without fearing retribution, and to be treated as an autonomous and dignified individual. But such a conception is not shared by all and never was. Its long history has been formed through a continuous battle between two theological and philosophical traditions going back to Origen from Alexandria and Augustine of Hippo respectively. Origen saw humans as free, valuable and dignified beings, while Augustine saw them as predestined, sinful and bound to servitude. The network will investigate the reception and use of Origens ideas in order to provide a comprehensive and historically based understanding of these fundamental values, their origins, development and the fights they have gone through. Only then can we argue for their continued place in modern society. Such a project is highly relevant today, since the modern conception of humans is a fundamental pillar of Western democracies which is under pressure from both political and fundamentalist religious groups that question the societal structures building on ideas of humans freedom and dignity, and by global crises and structures that limit the individuals autonomy.

Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: NMBP-03-2016 | Award Amount: 6.22M | Year: 2017

STARCELL proposes the substitution of CRMs in thin film PV by the development and demonstration of a cost effective solution based on kesterite CZTS (Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4) materials. Kesterites are only formed by elements abundant in the earth crust with low toxicity offering a secure supply chain and minimizing recycling costs and risks, and are compatible with massive sustainable deployment of electricity production at TeraWatt levels. Optimisation of the kesterite bulk properties together with redesign and optimization of the device interfaces and the cell architecture will be developed for the achievement of a challenging increase in the device efficiency up to 18% at cell level and targeting 16% efficiency at mini-module level, in line with the efficiency targets established at the SET Plan for 2020. These efficiencies will allow initiating the transfer of kesterite based processes to pre-industrial stages. These innovations will give to STARCELL the opportunity to demonstrate CRM free thin film PV devices with manufacturing costs 0.30 /Wp, making first detailed studies on the stability and durability of the kesterite devices under accelerated test analysis conditions and developing suitable recycling processes for efficient re-use of material waste. The project will join for the first time the 3 leading research teams that have achieved the highest efficiencies for kesterite in Europe (EMPA, IMRA and IREC) together with the group of the world record holder David Mitzi (Duke University) and NREL (a reference research centre in renewable energies worldwide) in USA, and AIST (the most renewed Japanese research centre in Energy and Environment) in Japan. These groups have during the last years specialised in different aspects of the solar cell optimisation and build the forefront of kesterite research. The synergies of their joined efforts will allow raising the efficiency of kesterite solar cells and mini-modules to values never attained for this technology.

Junker B.H.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Current Opinion in Biotechnology | Year: 2014

Quantitative information about metabolic networks has been mainly obtained at the level of metabolite contents, transcript abundance, and enzyme activities. However, the active process of metabolism is represented by the flow of matter through the pathways. These metabolic fluxes can be predicted by Flux Balance Analysis or determined experimentally by 13C-Metabolic Flux Analysis. These relatively complicated and time-consuming methods have recently seen significant improvements at the level of coverage and throughput. Metabolic models have developed from single cell models into whole-organism dynamic models. Advances in lab automation and data handling have significantly increased the throughput of flux measurements. This review summarizes advances to increase coverage and throughput of metabolic flux analysis in plants. © 2014.

Tschierske C.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Angewandte Chemie - International Edition | Year: 2013

Since the discovery of the liquid-crystalline state of matter 125-years ago, this field has developed into a scientific area with many facets. This Review presents recent developments in the molecular design and self-assembly of liquid crystals. The focus is on new exciting soft-matter structures distinct from the usually observed nematic, smectic, and columnar phases. These new structures have enhanced complexity, including multicompartment and cellular structures, periodic and quasiperiodic arrays of spheres, and new emergent properties, such as ferroelctricity and spontaneous achiral symmetry-breaking. Comparisons are made with developments in related fields, such as self-assembled monolayers, multiblock copolymers, and nanoparticle arrays. Measures of structural complexity used herein are the size of the lattice, the number of distinct compartments, the dimensionality, and the logic depth of the resulting supramolecular structures. Liquid crystals on the way to complexity: Recent developments in liquid-crystalline materials have lead to new structures with enhanced complexity, including honeycombs and multicompartment structures, vesicular phases, and periodic and quasiperiodic arrays. New properties emerge, such as ferroelctricity and spontaneous achiral symmetry-breaking. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Buttner D.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg
Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews | Year: 2012

Flagellar and translocation-associated type III secretion (T3S) systems are present in most Gram-negative plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria and are often essential for bacterial motility or pathogenicity. The architectures of the complex membrane-spanning secretion apparatuses of both systems are similar, but they are associated with different extracellular appendages, including the flagellar hook and filament or the needle/pilus structures of translocation-associated T3S systems. The needle/pilus is connected to a bacterial translocon that is inserted into the host plasma membrane and mediates the transkingdom transport of bacterial effector proteins into eukaryotic cells. During the last 3 to 5 years, significant progress has been made in the characterization of membrane-associated core components and extracellular structures of T3S systems. Furthermore, transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulators that control T3S gene expression and substrate specificity have been described. Given the architecture of the T3S system, it is assumed that extracellular components of the secretion apparatus are secreted prior to effector proteins, suggesting that there is a hierarchy in T3S. The aim of this review is to summarize our current knowledge of T3S system components and associated control proteins from both plant- and animal-pathogenic bacteria. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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