Marshfield Clinic Cancer Care

Stevens Point, WI, United States

Marshfield Clinic Cancer Care

Stevens Point, WI, United States

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Onitilo A.A.,Marshfield Clinic Weston Center | Onitilo A.A.,University of Queensland | Kar P.,Allegiance Health | Engel J.M.,Marshfield Clinic Cancer Care | Glurich I.,Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation
Minerva Medica | Year: 2013

The relative impact of tamoxifen therapy in women with breast cancer on overall survival, especially as it pertains to cardiac and cardiovascular outcomes, remains under debate in the literature. This review focuses specifically on outcomes of studies that examined large clinical trials with longest duration in patient follow-up relative to these parameters in which compliance with therapy could be documented. Over time, evidence supports potential cardioprotective effects and capacity of adjuvant therapy to improve lipid profiles in women treated with tamoxifen. While some benefit to cardiac health is supported, outcomes related to cardiovascular events remain variable across studies and challenging to interpret. In summary, overall survival in women treated with tamoxifen over time has increasingly shown a trend towards positive outcomes in the context of evaluation of post-treatment cardiac and vascular health. Potential mechanisms underlying the cardioprotective effects of tamoxifen are briefly discussed.


Onitilo A.A.,Marshfield Clinic Weston Center | Onitilo A.A.,Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation | Onitilo A.A.,University of Queensland | Engel J.M.,Marshfield Clinic Cancer Care | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2012

An association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer has long been postulated, but the biological mechanism responsible for this association has not been defined. In part one of this review, we discussed the epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer, decreased cancer survival, and decreased rates of cancer screening in diabetic patients. Here we review the risk factors shared by cancer and DM and how DM medications play a role in altering cancer risk. Hyperinsulinemia stands out as a major factor contributing to the association between DM and cancer, and modulation of circulating insulin levels by DM medications appears to play an important role in altering cancer risk. Drugs that increase circulating insulin, including exogenous insulin, insulin analogs, and insulin secretagogues, are generally associated with an increased cancer risk. In contrast, drugs that regulate insulin signaling without increasing levels, especially metformin, appear to be associated with a decreased cancer risk. In addition to hyperinsulinemia, the effect of DM medications on other shared risk factors including hyperglycemia, obesity, and oxidative stress as well as demographic factors that may influence the use of certain DM drugs in different populations are described. Further elucidation of the mechanisms behind the association between DM, cancer, and the role of DM medications in modulating cancer risk may aid in the development of better prevention and treatment options for both DM and cancer. Additionally, incorporation of DM medication use into cancer prediction models may lead to the development of improved risk assessment tools for diabetic patients. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Onitilo A.A.,Marshfield Clinic Weston Center | Onitilo A.A.,University of Queensland | Berg R.L.,Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation | Engel J.M.,Marshfield Clinic Cancer Care | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Background:Historically, studies exploring the association between type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer lack accurate definition of date of DM onset, limiting temporal analyses. We examined the temporal relationship between colon cancer risk and DM using an electronic algorithm and clinical, administrative, and laboratory data to pinpoint date of DM onset.Methods:Subjects diagnosed with DM (N = 11,236) between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2009 were identified and matched at a 5:1 ratio with 54 365 non-diabetic subjects by age, gender, smoking history, residence, and diagnosis reference date. Colon cancer incidence relative to the reference date was used to develop Cox regression models adjusted for matching variables, body mass index, insurance status, and comorbidities. Primary outcomes measures included hazard ratio (HR) and number needed to be exposed for one additional person to be harmed (NNEH).Results:The adjusted HR for colon cancer in men before DM onset was 1.28 (95% CI 1.04-1.58, P = 0.0223) and the NNEH decreased with time, reaching 263 at DM onset. No such difference was observed in women. After DM onset, DM did not appear to alter colon cancer risk in either gender.Conclusions:Colon cancer risk is increased in diabetic men, but not women, before DM onset. DM did not alter colon cancer risk in men or women after clinical onset. In pre-diabetic men, colon cancer risk increased as time to DM onset decreased, suggesting that the effects of the pre-diabetes phase on colon cancer risk in men are cumulative. © 2013 Onitilo et al.


Onitilo A.A.,Marshfield Clinic Weston Center | Onitilo A.A.,Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation | Onitilo A.A.,University of Queensland | Engel J.M.,Marshfield Clinic Cancer Care | And 4 more authors.
Cancer Causes and Control | Year: 2012

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cancer are common diseases that are frequently diagnosed in the same individual. An association between the two conditions has long been postulated. Here, we review the epidemiological evidence for increased risk of cancer, decreased cancer survival, and decreased rates of cancer screening in diabetic patients. The risk for several cancers, including cancers of the pancreas, liver, colorectum, breast, urinary tract, and endometrium, is increased in patients with DM. In a pooled risk analysis weighting published meta-analytic relative risk (RR) for individual cancer by differences in their incidence rates, we found a population RR of 0.97 (95 % CI, 0.75-1.25) in men and 1.29 (95 % CI, 1.16-1.44) in women. All meta-analyses showed an increased relative risk for cancer in diabetic men, except studies of prostate cancer, in which a protective effect was observed. The relationship between diabetes and cancer appears to be complex, and at present, a clear temporal relationship between the two conditions cannot be defined. DM also impacts negatively on cancer-related survival outcomes and cancer screening rates. The overwhelming evidence for lower cancer screening rates, increased incidence of certain cancers, and poorer prognosis after cancer diagnosis in diabetic patients dictates a need for improved cancer care in diabetic individuals through improved screening measures, development of risk assessment tools, and consideration of cancer prevention strategies in diabetic patients. Part two of this review focuses on the biological and pharmacological mechanisms that may account for the association between DM and cancer. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.


Onitilo A.A.,Marshfield Clinic Weston Center | Onitilo A.A.,University of Queensland | Engel J.M.,Marshfield Clinic Cancer Care | Stankowski R.V.,Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation | Doi S.A.R.,University of Queensland
Clinical Medicine and Research | Year: 2015

Objectives: Evidence suggests superiority of breast conserving surgery (BCS) plus radiation over mastectomy alone for treatment of early stage breast cancer. Whether the superiority of BCS plus radiation is related to the surgical approach itself or to the addition of adjuvant radiation therapy following BCS remains unclear. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women with breast cancer diagnosed from 1994–2012. Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics and treatment specifics were captured electronically. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed with inverse probability of treatment weighting to reduce selection bias effects in surgical assignment. Results: Data from 5335 women were included, of which two-thirds had BCS and one-third had mastectomy. Surgical decision trends changed over time with more women undergoing mastectomy in recent years. Women who underwent BCS versus mastectomy differed significantly regarding age, cancer stage/grade, adjuvant radiation, chemotherapy, and endocrine treatment. Overall survival was similar for BCS and mastectomy. When BCS plus radiation was compared to mastectomy alone, 3-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival was 96.5% vs 93.4%, 92.9% vs 88.3% and 80.9% vs 67.2%, respectively. Conclusion: These analyses suggest that survival benefit is not related only to the surgery itself, but that the prognostic advantage of BCS plus radiation over mastectomy may also be related to the addition of adjuvant radiation therapy. This conclusion requires prospective confirmation in randomized trials. © 2015 Marshfield Clinic Health System.


Onitilo A.A.,Marshfield Clinic Weston Center | Onitilo A.A.,Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation | Stankowski R.V.,Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation | Berg R.L.,Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2014

The physiological changes associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus begin before disease onset, yet few have examined the incidence of cancer both before and after diabetes onset. We examined the temporal relationship between diabetes and breast cancer risk. Breast cancer risk was assessed in a retrospective cohort study using patient data from the Marshfield Clinic electronic medical record including 5423 women who developed diabetes between 1 January 1995 and 31 December 2009 (reference date) and 26 346 nondiabetic women matched by age, smoking history, residence, and reference date. Breast cancer risk was assessed before and after reference date, adjusting for matching variables, BMI, insurance status, and comorbidities. Primary outcomes included hazard ratio (HR) and number of women needed to be exposed to diabetes for one additional person to be harmed - that is, develop breast cancer (NNEH). HR for breast cancer before diabetes diagnosis was 1.16 (95% CI 1.03-1.31, P=0.0150) and NNEH was 99 at time of diabetes onset. HR for breast cancer after diabetes diagnosis was not significant at 1.07 (95% CI 0.90-1.28, P=0.422), and NNEH was 350 at 10 years post diabetes onset. Diabetic women are at the greatest increased risk of breast cancer near the time of diabetes diagnosis. The comparative NNEH increased shortly after diagnosis and as the duration of diabetes increased. Breast cancer risk appears to be increased during the prediabetes phase, waning after diagnosis, raising important issues regarding timing of breast cancer prevention interventions in women with diabetes. © 2014 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.


Onitilo A.A.,Marshfield Clinic Weston Center | Onitilo A.A.,University of Queensland | Berg R.L.,Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation | Engel J.M.,Marshfield Clinic Cancer Care | And 4 more authors.
Clinical Medicine and Research | Year: 2013

Background: Diagnosis and duration of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) appear to be associated with decreased prostate cancer risk. Limitations of previous studies include methods of subject selection and accurate definition of DM diagnosis. We examined the temporal relationship between DM and prostate cancer risk exploring the period of greatest risk starting from the prediabetic to the post-diabetic period using clinical and administrative data to accurately define the date of DM diagnosis. Methods: We identified 5,813 men who developed DM between January 1, 1995 and December 31, 2009 (reference date, date of DM onset or matched date for non-diabetic cohort) and 28,019 non-diabetic men matched by age, smoking history, residence, and reference date. Prostate cancer incidence before and after the reference date was assessed using Cox regression modeling adjusted for matching variables, body mass index, insurance status, and comorbidities. Primary outcomes included hazard ratio (HR) and number needed to be exposed to DM for one additional person to be harmed (NNEH) or benefit (NNEB) with respect to prostate cancer risk. Results: After full adjustment, the HR for prostate cancer before DM diagnosis was 0.96 (95% CI 0.85-1.08; P=0.4752), and the NNEB was 974 at DM diagnosis. After the reference date, the fully-adjusted HR for prostate cancer in diabetic men was 0.84 (95% CI 0.72-0.97, P=0.0167), and the NNEB 3 years after DM onset was 425. The NNEB continued to decrease over time, reaching 63 at 15 years after DM onset, suggesting an increasing protective effect of DM on prostate cancer risk over time. No significant difference between the diabetic and non-diabetic cohort was found prior to reference date. Conclusion: Prostate cancer risk is not reduced in pre-diabetic men but decreases after DM diagnosis and the protective effect of DM onset on prostate cancer risk increases with DM duration. © 2013 Marshfield Clinic.


PubMed | University of Queensland, Marshfield Clinic Research Foundation and Marshfield Clinic Cancer Care
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Clinical medicine & research | Year: 2015

Evidence suggests superiority of breast conserving surgery (BCS) plus radiation over mastectomy alone for treatment of early stage breast cancer. Whether the superiority of BCS plus radiation is related to the surgical approach itself or to the addition of adjuvant radiation therapy following BCS remains unclear.We conducted a retrospective cohort study of women with breast cancer diagnosed from 1994-2012. Data regarding patient and tumor characteristics and treatment specifics were captured electronically. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed with inverse probability of treatment weighting to reduce selection bias effects in surgical assignment.Data from 5335 women were included, of which two-thirds had BCS and one-third had mastectomy. Surgical decision trends changed over time with more women undergoing mastectomy in recent years. Women who underwent BCS versus mastectomy differed significantly regarding age, cancer stage/grade, adjuvant radiation, chemotherapy, and endocrine treatment. Overall survival was similar for BCS and mastectomy. When BCS plus radiation was compared to mastectomy alone, 3-, 5-, and 10-year overall survival was 96.5% vs 93.4%, 92.9% vs 88.3% and 80.9% vs 67.2%, respectively.These analyses suggest that survival benefit is not related only to the surgery itself, but that the prognostic advantage of BCS plus radiation over mastectomy may also be related to the addition of adjuvant radiation therapy. This conclusion requires prospective confirmation in randomized trials.

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