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Huntington, WV, United States

Marshall University is a coeducational public research university in Huntington, West Virginia, United States founded in 1837, and named after John Marshall, the fourth Chief Justice of the United States.The university is currently composed of nine undergraduate colleges: College of Business , College of Education and Professional Development , College of Arts and Media , College of Health Professions , Honors College, College of Information Technology and Engineering , College of Liberal Arts , College of Science , and University College ; three graduate colleges, the general Graduate College, the School of Pharmacy, and the Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine, a regional center for cancer research which has a national reputation for its programs in rural healthcare delivery. The forensic science graduate program is one of nearly twenty post-graduate-level academic programs in the United States accredited by the American Academy of Forensic science. The University's digital forensics program is the first program in the world to receive accreditation in digital forensics from the Forensic Science Education Programs Accreditation Commission . The College of Business has achieved AACSB accreditation.Marshall University has a non-residential branch campus, focused on graduate education, in South Charleston, the Marshall University - South Charleston Campus, which also offers classes throughout the southern half of the state, including at the Erma Byrd Higher Education Center in Beckley. It also offers undergraduate courses, under three "centers", the Southern Mountain Center, operating on the campuses of the Southern West Virginia Community College in Logan and Williamson and at the YMCA in Gilbert; the Mid-Ohio Valley Center in Point Pleasant and the Teays Valley Center in Hurricane. Marshall University also operates the Robert C. Byrd Institute, with operations on both the Huntington and South Charleston campuses, as well as in Fairmont, West Virginia, and Rocket Center, West Virginia. The goal of the Institute is the transfer of technology from the academic departments to private industry to support job development in the region. Wikipedia.


Muchlinski M.N.,Marshall University
Journal of Human Evolution | Year: 2010

Vibrissae are specialized sensory "hairs" that respond to mechanical stimuli. Sensory information from vibrissae is transmitted to the brain via the infraorbital nerve, which passes through the infraorbital foramen (IOF). Several analyses have documented that primates have smaller IOFs than non-primate mammals, and that haplorhines have smaller IOFs than strepsirrhines. These grade shifts in IOF area were attributed to differences in " vibrissa development." Following earlier analyses, IOF area has been used to derive a general estimate of " whiskeredness" in extinct primates, and consequently, IOF area has been used in phylogenetic and paleoecological interpretations. Yet, the relationship between IOF area and vibrissa count has not been tested, and little is known about how IOF area and vibrissa counts vary among mammals. This study explores how relative IOF area and vibrissa count differ among 25 mammalian orders, and tests for a correlation between IOF area and vibrissa count. Results indicate that primates and dermopterans (Primatomorpha) have smaller IOFs than most non-primate mammals, but they do not have fewer vibrissae. In addition, strepsirrhines and haplorhines do not differ from one another in relative IOF area or vibrissa counts. Despite different patterns documented for IOF area and vibrissa count variation across mammals, results from this study do confirm that vibrissa count and IOF area are significantly and positively correlated (p < 0.0001). However, there is considerable scatter in the data, suggesting that vibrissa counts cannot be predicted from IOF area. There are three implications of these finding. First, IOF area reflects all mechanoreceptors in the maxillary region, not just vibrissae. Second, IOF area may be an informative feature in interpretations of the fossil record. Third, paleoecological interpretations based on vibrissae are not recommended. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Serrat M.A.,Marshall University
Comprehensive Physiology | Year: 2014

Environmental temperature can have a surprising impact on extremity growth in homeotherms, but the underlying mechanisms have remained elusive for over a century. Limbs of animals raised at warm ambient temperature are significantly and permanently longer than those of littermates housed at cooler temperature. These remarkably consistent lab results closely resemble the ecogeographical tenet described by Allen's "extremity size rule," that appendage length correlates with temperature and latitude. This phenotypic growth plasticity could have adaptive significance for thermal physiology. Shortened extremities help retain body heat in cold environments by decreasing surface area for potential heat loss. Homeotherms have evolved complex mechanisms to maintain tightly regulated internal temperatures in challenging environments, including "facultative extremity heterothermy" in which limb temperatures can parallel ambient. Environmental modulation of tissue temperature can have direct and immediate consequences on cell proliferation, metabolism, matrix production, and mineralization in cartilage. Temperature can also indirectly influence cartilage growth by modulating circulating levels and delivery routes of essential hormones and paracrine regulators. Using an integrated approach, this article synthesizes classic studies with new data that shed light on the basis and significance of this enigmatic growth phenomenon and its relevance for treating human bone elongation disorders. Discussion centers on the vasculature as a gateway to understanding the complex interconnection between direct (local) and indirect (systemic) mechanisms of temperature-enhanced bone lengthening. Recent advances in imaging modalities that enable the dynamic study of cartilage growth plates in vivo will be key to elucidating fundamental physiological mechanisms of long bone growth regulation. © 2014 American Physiological Society.


Nalabotu S.K.,Marshall University
International journal of nanomedicine | Year: 2011

Cerium oxide (CeO(2)) nanoparticles have been posited to have both beneficial and toxic effects on biological systems. Herein, we examine if a single intratracheal instillation of CeO(2) nanoparticles is associated with systemic toxicity in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Compared with control animals, CeO(2) nanoparticle exposure was associated with increased liver ceria levels, elevations in serum alanine transaminase levels, reduced albumin levels, a diminished sodium-potassium ratio, and decreased serum triglyceride levels (P < 0.05). Consistent with these data, rats exposed to CeO(2) nanoparticles also exhibited reductions in liver weight (P < 0.05) and dose-dependent hydropic degeneration, hepatocyte enlargement, sinusoidal dilatation, and accumulation of granular material. No histopathological alterations were observed in the kidney, spleen, and heart. Analysis of serum biomarkers suggested an elevation of acute phase reactants and markers of hepatocyte injury in the rats exposed to CeO(2) nanoparticles. Taken together, these data suggest that intratracheal instillation of CeO(2) nanoparticles can result in liver damage.


Cheung F.H.,Marshall University
Orthopedic Clinics of North America | Year: 2014

Long bone skeletal metastases are common in the United States, with more than 280,000 new cases every year. Most of these will be managed by the on-call orthopedic surgeon. A practical primer is offered for the evaluation and surgical management for the practicing orthopedist, including questions to ask during the history, pertinent physical examination findings, appropriate imaging requests, proper laboratory work, and biopsy options. Finally, 7 scenarios are presented to encompass most situations a practicing orthopedic surgeon will encounter, and guidelines for treatment and referral are offered. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Ford M.,Marshall University
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2012

Majuro is the capital and most populated atoll in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and is located approximately 3700 km WSW of Oahu, Hawaii. Like other atolls, Majuro is considered highly vulnerable to sea level rise. One of the widely perceived impacts of sea level rise on atoll islands is widespread chronic erosion. Using a combination of aerial photos and satellite imagery, this study presents an analysis of shoreline change over a 34- to 37-year study period, characterized by rapidly increasing population, coastal development, and rising sea level (3.0 mm y -1). Results show most (93%) urban and rural villages have increased in size over the study period. Shoreline change analysis indicates the urban area has expanded both toward the lagoon and onto the ocean-facing reef flat. Shoreline change within the urban area of Majuro has been largely driven by widespread reclamation for a mix of residential, commercial, and industrial activities. Rural areas of the atoll typically have lower rates of shoreline change relative to those of urban areas. Analysis indicates that the rural lagoon shore is predominantly eroding, whereas the ocean-facing shore is largely accreting. Any shoreline response to sea level rise along the Majuro coast is likely masked by widespread anthropogenic impacts to the coastal system. © 2012, the Coastal Education & Research Foundation (CERF).

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