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Makassar, Indonesia

McMahon P.,La Trobe University | Purwantara A.,Biotechnology Research Institute for Estate Crops | Susilo A.W.,Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute | Sukamto S.,Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Pest Management | Year: 2010

The cocoa industry in Sulawesi, the main region of cocoa production in Indonesia, is threatened by destructive diseases, including vascular-streak dieback (VSD) caused by the basidiomycete Oncobasidium theobromae and stem canker and Phytophthora pod rot (PPR) or black pod, caused by Phytophthora palmivora. Using the considerable genetic diversity of cocoa on farms, host resistance was identified and tested with the participation of farmers. Fortynine local and international cocoa selections with promising resistance characteristics (as well as susceptible controls) were side-grafted onto mature cocoa in a replicated trial with single-tree plots. Developing grafts were assessed in the dry season for severity of VSD infection, scored from 0 (no infection) to 4 (graft death). All of the 49 clones in the trial became infected with VSD in at least some replicates. Average severity varied from 0.2 to 1.6. Potential VSDresistance was found in eight clones, including DRC 15, KA2 106 and a local Sulawesi selection, VSD2Ldg. Some of the most susceptible clones were local Sulawesi selections from areas with a history of little or no VSD. Thirty-four pod-bearing clones were evaluated over a 2-year period for yield, quality and resistance to natural infections of PPR. Cumulative PPR incidence for all clones was 22% but varied from 8.6 to 43% among clones. Clones with less than 15% PPR incidence were designated as resistant, including DRC 16 and local Sulawesi selections, Aryadi 1, Aryadi 3 and VSD1Ldg. Scavina 12 was moderately resistant in the trial with a PPR incidence of 23%. Cumulative incidences of the mirid, Helopeltis spp., determined in the same evaluation period, indicated that DRC16 was the most susceptible clone with an incidence of 52% in ripe pods and 23% in immature pods. In comparison, KKM4 showed evidence of resistance to Helopeltis spp., with incidences of 34 and 0.8% in ripe and immature pods, respectively. The impact of diseases and pests (including cocoa pod borer) on bean losses and bean quality varied between clones but generally the bean size (or bean count) was affected more than the fat content or shell content. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source

Williams S.L.,University of California at Davis | Janetski N.,Mars Symbioscience Indonesia | Abbott J.,University of California at Davis | Blankenhorn S.,Mars Symbioscience Indonesia | And 6 more authors.
Environmental Management | Year: 2014

Ornamental marine species (‘OMS’) provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS. © 2014, The Author(s). Source

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