Mars GmbH

Verden, Germany

Mars GmbH

Verden, Germany

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Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: EE-17-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 6.47M | Year: 2016

The overall objective of the DRYficiency project is to lead energy-intensive sectors of the European manufacturing industry to high energy efficiency and a reduction of fossil carbon emissions by means of waste heat recovery to foster competitiveness, improve security of energy supply and guarantee sustainable production in Europe. The project addresses three sectors, namely brick, pet care/feed and food industry. The results are however of major relevance for a number of other energy-intensive industries such as e.g. pulp and paper industry. The DRYficiency consortium will elaborate technically and economically viable solutions for upgrading idle waste heat streams to process heat streams at higher temperature levels up to 180 C. The key elements of the solution are two high temperature vapour compression heat pumps: a closed loop heat pump for air drying processes and an open loop heat pump for steam drying processes. The DRYficiency solution will be demonstrated under real production conditions in operational industrial drying processes in three leading European manufacturing companies from the pet food, food and brick industries. The potential of the technology demonstrated is to reduce the specific energy demand for drying and dehydration from 700-800 kWh per ton down to 200 kWh per ton of evaporated water. The energy switch from fossil fuels towards heat pump technology reduces the environmental impact considerably and offers at the same time a potential for energy savings of up to 60-80 %. This will lead to substantial reduction of energy costs and consequently lower specific product costs resulting in a significantly improved competitiveness.


Brenten T.,Mars GmbH | Morris P.J.,Center for Pet Nutrition | Salt C.,Center for Pet Nutrition | Raila J.,University of Potsdam | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Research in rodents has shown that dietary vitamin A reduces body fat by enhancing fat mobilisation and energy utilisation; however, their effects in growing dogs remain unclear. In the present study, we evaluated the development of body weight and body composition and compared observed energy intake with predicted energy intake in forty-nine puppies from two breeds (twenty-four Labrador Retriever (LAB) and twenty-five Miniature Schnauzer (MS)). A total of four different diets with increasing vitamin A content between 5·24 and 104·80 μmol retinol (5000-100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal) metabolisable energy were fed from the age of 8 weeks up to 52 (MS) and 78 weeks (LAB). The daily energy intake was recorded throughout the experimental period. The body condition score was evaluated weekly using a seven-category system, and food allowances were adjusted to maintain optimal body condition. Body composition was assessed at the age of 26 and 52 weeks for both breeds and at the age of 78 weeks for the LAB breed only using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The growth curves of the dogs followed a breed-specific pattern. However, data on energy intake showed considerable variability between the two breeds as well as when compared with predicted energy intake. In conclusion, the data show that energy intakes of puppies particularly during early growth are highly variable; however, the growth pattern and body composition of the LAB and MS breeds are not affected by the intake of vitamin A at levels up to 104·80 μmol retinol (100 000 IU vitamin A)/4184 kJ (1000 kcal). © The Authors 2014.


Morris P.J.,Center for Pet Nutrition | Salt C.,Center for Pet Nutrition | Raila J.,University of Potsdam | Brenten T.,Mars GmbH | And 3 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2012

The safe upper limit for inclusion of vitamin A in complete diets for growing dogs is uncertain, with the result that current recommendations range from 5.24 to 104.80 μmol retinol (5000 to 100000IU vitamin A)/4184kJ (1000kcal) metabolisable energy (ME). The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of feeding four concentrations of vitamin A to puppies from weaning until 1 year of age. A total of forty-nine puppies, of two breeds, Labrador Retriever and Miniature Schnauzer, were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups. Following weaning at 8 weeks of age, puppies were fed a complete food supplemented with retinyl acetate diluted in vegetable oil and fed at 1ml oil/100g diet to achieve an intake of 5.24, 13.10, 78.60 and 104.80 μmol retinol (5000, 12500, 75000 and 100000IU vitamin A)/4184kJ (1000kcal) ME. Fasted blood and urine samples were collected at 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 20, 26, 36 and 52 weeks of age and analysed for markers of vitamin A metabolism and markers of safety including haematological and biochemical variables, bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptides of type I collagen and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Clinical examinations were conducted every 4 weeks. Data were analysed by means of a mixed model analysis with Bonferroni corrections for multiple endpoints. There was no effect of vitamin A concentration on any of the parameters, with the exception of total serum retinyl esters, and no effect of dose on the number, type and duration of adverse events. We therefore propose that 104.80 μmol retinol (100000IU vitamin A)/4184kJ (1000kcal) is a suitable safe upper limit for use in the formulation of diets designed for puppy growth. © 2012 The Authors.


PubMed | Mars GmbH, Free University of Berlin, University of Potsdam and Center for Pet Nutrition
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary record open | Year: 2016

Breed, sex and age effects on haematological and biochemical variables were investigated in 24 labrador retriever and 25 miniature schnauzer dogs during the first year of life. Blood samples were taken regularly between weeks 8 and 52. White blood cell and red blood cell counts, haemoglobin concentration, haematocrit, mean cell volume, mean cell haemoglobin, mean cell haemoglobin concentration, platelet count as well as total protein, albumin, calcium, phosphate, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, total cholesterol, triglycerides, creatine and urea were evaluated. For all haematological and biochemical parameters, there were significant effects of age on test results. Statistically significant effects for breed and the breedage interaction on test results were observed for most of the parameters with the exception of haemoglobin. Variations in test results illustrate growth related alterations in body tissue and metabolism leading to dynamic and marked changes in haematological and biochemical parameters, which have to be considered for the interpretation of clinical data obtained from dogs in the first year of life.


Passlack N.,Free University of Berlin | Burmeier H.,Free University of Berlin | Brenten T.,Mars GmbH | Neumann K.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Zentek J.,Free University of Berlin
Veterinary Journal | Year: 2014

High dietary salt (NaCl) concentrations are assumed to be beneficial in preventing the formation of calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths in cats, since increased water intake and urine volume have been observed subsequent to intake. In human beings, dietary NaCl restriction is recommended for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation, since high NaCl intake is associated with increased urinary Ca excretion. The aim of the present study was to clarify the role of dietary NaCl in the formation of CaOx uroliths in cats. Eight cats received four diets that differed in Na and Cl concentrations (0.38-1.43% Na and 0.56-2.52% Cl dry matter, DM). Each feeding period consisted of a 21day adaptation period, followed by a 7day sampling period for urine collection. Higher dietary NaCl concentrations were associated with increased urine volume and renal Na excretion. Urinary Ca concentration was constant, but renal Ca excretion increased from 0.62 to 1.05mg/kg bodyweight (BW)/day with higher dietary NaCl concentrations (P≤0.05). Urinary oxalate (Ox), citrate, P and K concentrations decreased when NaCl intake was high (P≤0.05), and urinary pH was low in all groups (6.33-6.45; P>0.05). Relative supersaturation of CaOx in the urine was unaffected by dietary NaCl concentrations. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated several beneficial effects of high dietary NaCl intake over a relatively short time period. In particular, urinary Ca concentration remained unchanged because of increased urine volume. Decreased urinary Ox concentrations might help to prevent the formation of CaOx uroliths, but this should be verified in future studies in diseased or predisposed cats. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Palack N.,Free University of Berlin | Brenten T.,Mars GmbH | Neumann K.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Zentek J.,Free University of Berlin
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

Low dietary K levels have been associated with increasing renal Ca excretion in humans, indicating a higher risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether dietary K also affects the urine composition of cats. A total of eight adult cats were fed diets containing 0·31 % native K and 0·50, 0·75 and 1·00 % K from KCl or KHCO3 and were evaluated for the effects of dietary K. High dietary K levels were found to elevate urinary K concentrations (P< 0·001). Renal Ca excretion was higher in cats fed the KCl diets than in those fed the KHCO3 diets (P= 0·026), while urinary oxalate concentrations were generally lower in cats fed the KCl diets and only dependent on dietary K levels in cats fed the KHCO3 diets (P< 0·05). Fasting urine pH increased with higher dietary K levels (P= 0·022), reaching values of 6·38 (1·00 % KCl) and 7·65 (1·00 % KHCO3). K retention was markedly negative after feeding the cats with the basal diet ( - 197 mg/d) and the 0·50 % KCl diet ( - 131 mg/d), while the cats tended to maintain their balance on being fed the highest-KCl diet ( - 23·3 mg/d). In contrast, K from KHCO3 was more efficiently retained (P= 0·018), with K retention being between - 82·5 and 52·5 mg/d. In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of KHCO3 instead of KCl as K source could be beneficial for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation in cats, since there is an association between a lower renal Ca excretion and a generally higher urine pH. The utilisation of K is distinctly influenced by the K salt, which may be especially practically relevant when using diets with low K levels. Copyright © 2013 The Authors.


PubMed | Free University of Berlin, Charité - Medical University of Berlin and Mars GmbH
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2014

Low dietary K levels have been associated with increasing renal Ca excretion in humans, indicating a higher risk of calcium oxalate (CaOx) urolith formation. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate whether dietary K also affects the urine composition of cats. A total of eight adult cats were fed diets containing 031 % native K and 050, 075 and 100 % K from KCl or KHCO and were evaluated for the effects of dietary K. High dietary K levels were found to elevate urinary K concentrations (P<0001). Renal Ca excretion was higher in cats fed the KCl diets than in those fed the KHCO diets (P=0026), while urinary oxalate concentrations were generally lower in cats fed the KCl diets and only dependent on dietary K levels in cats fed the KHCO diets (P<005). Fasting urine pH increased with higher dietary K levels (P=0022), reaching values of 638 (100 % KCl) and 765 (100 % KHCO). K retention was markedly negative after feeding the cats with the basal diet (-197 mg/d) and the 050 % KCl diet (-131 mg/d), while the cats tended to maintain their balance on being fed the highest-KCl diet (-233 mg/d). In contrast, K from KHCO was more efficiently retained (P=0018), with K retention being between -825 and 525 mg/d. In conclusion, the dietary inclusion of KHCO instead of KCl as K source could be beneficial for the prevention of CaOx urolith formation in cats, since there is an association between a lower renal Ca excretion and a generally higher urine pH. The utilisation of K is distinctly influenced by the K salt, which may be especially practically relevant when using diets with low K levels.


PubMed | Free University of Berlin, Charité - Medical University of Berlin and Mars GmbH
Type: | Journal: Journal of nutritional science | Year: 2015

The role of dietary protein for the development of feline calcium oxalate (CaOx) uroliths has not been conclusively clarified. The present study evaluated the effects of a varying dietary protein concentration and quality on critical indices for the formation of CaOx uroliths. Three diets with a high protein quality (10-11 % greaves meal/diet) and a varying crude protein (CP) concentration (35, 44 and 57 % in DM) were compared. Additionally, the 57 % CP diet was compared with a fourth diet that had a similar CP concentration (55 % in DM), but a lower protein quality (34 % greaves meal/diet). The Ca and oxalate (Ox) concentrations were similar in all diets. A group of eight cats received the same diet at the same time. Each feeding period was divided into a 21 d adaptation period and a 7 d sampling period to collect urine. There were increases in urinary volume, urinary Ca concentrations, renal Ca and Ox excretion and urinary relative supersaturation (RSS) with CaOx with increasing dietary protein concentrations. Urinary pH ranged between 634 and 666 among all groups, with no unidirectional effect of dietary protein. Lower renal Ca excretion was observed when feeding the diet with the lower protein quality, however, the underlying mechanism needs further evaluation. In conclusion, although the observed higher urinary volume is beneficial, the increase in urinary Ca concentrations, renal Ca and Ox excretion and urinary RSS CaOx associated with a high-protein diet may be critical for the development of CaOx uroliths in cats.


Vial C.,CNRS Pascal Institute | Narchi I.,Mars GmbH
Oil and Gas Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The objective is to develop a model viscous foamy fluid, i.e. below the very wet limit, the rheological and stability properties of which can be tuned. First, the method used for the preparation of foamy fluids is detailed, including process and formulation. Then, experimental results highlight that stable foamy fluids with a monomodal bubble size distribution can be prepared with a void fraction between 25% and 50% (v/v). Their viscoelastic properties under flow and low-strain oscillatory conditions are shown to result from the interplay between the formulation of the continuous phase, void fraction and bubble size. Their apparent viscosity can be described using the Cross equation and zero-shear Newtonian viscosity may be predicted by a Mooney equation up to a void fraction about 40%. The Cox-Merz and the Laun's rules apply when the capillary number Ca is lower than 0.1.The upper limit of the zero-shear plateau region decreases when void fraction increases or bubble size decreases. In the shear-thinning region, shear stress varies with Ca1/2, as in wet foams with immobile surfaces. Finally, foamy fluids can be sheared up to Ca about 0.1 without impairing their microstructure. Their stability at rest achieves several hours and increases with void fraction due to compact packing constraints. These constitute, therefore, versatile model fluids to investigate the behaviour of foamy fluids below the very wet limit in process conditions.© 2014, IFP Energies nouvelles.


Leeb E.,TU Munich | Gotz A.,TU Munich | Letzel T.,TU Munich | Cheison S.C.,TU Munich | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

Whereas previous studies showed that thermal pre-treatment of whey proteins promote their enzymatic hydrolysis, to date no correlation between the conformation of denatured protein and the release of individual peptides has been considered. Hence, in this study total denaturation of β-lactoglobulin was performed at defined pH-values to enable the generation of different denatured particles. The denatured proteins were used as substrate for tryptic hydrolysis and the hydrolysis progress was characterised by the degree of hydrolysis (DH) and the release of functional peptides, detected using LC-ESI-TOF/MS. Denaturation and subsequent aggregation of β-lactoglobulin, induced by thermal treatment at pH 5.1, altered the DH slightly, whereas the release of investigated peptides was significantly decreased. Contrary, denaturation at pH 6.8 and 8.0 led to formation of non-native monomers and reduced the DH to 75%, but showed promoting as well as reducing effects on the release of peptides, depending on their location within the protein. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

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