PubMed | c Integrated Laboratory Systems, d Alera Labs LLC, a Maronpot Consulting LLC and F.F.I. Inc .
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Food additives & contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, analysis, control, exposure & risk assessment | Year: 2015
Myricitrin, a flavonol rhamnoside of myricetin extracted from the Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Siebold) plant, has been used in Japan since 1992 as a flavour modifier in snack foods, dairy products, and beverages. It is affirmed as generally recognised as safe (GRAS) by the US Flavour and Extract Manufacturer Association (FEMA) and is considered safe by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) at current estimated dietary exposures. In anticipation of expanded marketing, 97% pure myricitrin was fed to male and female Sprague-Dawley rats at dietary concentrations of 0.5%, 1.5% and 5.0% in a 90-day toxicity study. There was increased food consumption and decreased body weight gain in males exposed to 5% myricitrin. Blood values were within laboratory reference ranges except for mean increases in basophils in low- and high-dose males and serum phosphorus in high-dose males. In the absence of abnormal clinical or histopathological changes, these changes are not considered adverse. Based on the 90-day rat toxicity study, the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) is 2926mgkg(-1)day(-1) in males and 3197mgkg(-1)day(-1) in females. Gavage administration of myricitrin resulted in blood levels of myricitrin within 1h after single oral doses of 250, 500 or 1000mgkg(-1) body weight, indicating direct absorption of the glycosylated form of this flavonoid. Blood levels of myricetin, a metabolite of myricitrin, were not present in rats dosed orally with 1.6mgkg(-1) myricetin, but were present only at 12 or 24h in one of five, in three of five, and in four of five rats dosed with 250, 500 and 1000mg myricitrinkg(-1) body weight, respectively, possibly a result of hepatic conversion of myricitrin to myricetin and enterohepatic recirculation of the resulting myricetin. The current studies further support prior safety assessments of myricitrin as a food flavouring.
PubMed | ExxonMobil, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, a Maronpot Consulting LLC and Tel Aviv University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Critical reviews in toxicology | Year: 2016
The Fischer 344 (F344) rat was used by the National Toxicology Program (NTP) for over 5 decades for toxicity and carcinogenicity studies. However, in 2006, the NTP decided to switch to a different rat stock due largely to high background control incidences of Leydig cell tumors (LCTs) and mononuclear cell leukemia (MNCL), also known as large granular lymphocytic (LGL) leukemia. In the current review, we aim (1) to provide a summary of NTP bioassays with treatment-associated effects involving MNCL and LCTs in addition to male F344-specific tunica vaginalis mesothelioma (TVM); (2) to describe important pathobiological differences between these F344 rat tumor responses and similar target tissue-tumor response in humans; and (3) to present the NTP reasons for switching away from the F344 rat. We show that due to the highly variable background incidence of F344 MNCL, more reliance on historical control data than is usual for most tumor responses is warranted to evaluate potential effect of any chemical treatment in this rat strain. The high spontaneous incidence of LCTs in the testes of male F344 rats has made this tumor endpoint of little practical use in identifying potential testicular carcinogenic responses. TVM responses in F344 rats have a biological plausible relationship to LCTs unlike TVM in humans. Given their high spontaneous background incidence and species-specific biology, we contend that MNCL and LCT, along with TVM responses, in F344 rat carcinogenicity studies are inappropriate tumor types for human health risk assessment and lack relevance in predicting human carcinogenicity.