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Markey, United States

Ely G.E.,University of Kentucky | Fields M.,University of Louisville | Dignan M.,Markey Cancer Center
Social Work in Public Health

The purpose of this article is to describe a pilot study of 16 Appalachian Kentucky school districts designed to gather information about their school vaccination and health education programs in relation to the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. School district administrators were contacted by a professional telephone interviewer and asked to participate in a structured interview that also included open-ended questions. Results suggest that few schools have school-based vaccination programs, and of those that do, very few programs include the HPV vaccine. A majority of respondents reported that information leaflets about HPV are available in the schools, whereas few schools include discussions of HPV in their health programs. Almost all respondents reported an excellent relationship with their county health departments, school nurses, and school social workers, although most schools lacked the presence of a school social worker. Implications for social work practice and policy and directions for future research are also discussed. © Taylor and Francis. Source

Etter N.M.,Pennsylvania State University | Dressler E.V.,Markey Cancer Center | Andreatta R.D.,University of Kentucky
International Journal of Speech-Language Pathology

Purpose: Orofacial anatomy is unique from other body systems in that oral musculature inserts directly into the underlying cutaneous skin, allowing for tight temporal synchronicity between somatosensory and auditory performance feedback to maintain correct orofacial behaviours across the lifespan. Unfortunately, little is currently known regarding the changes in orofacial sensory capacities associated with ageing and how these somatosensory and auditory changes may impact feedback during functional behaviours such as speech or swallowing. The purpose of this descriptive study was to begin assessing the relationship between the auditory and labial somatosensory system in healthy ageing adults. Method: Pure-tone hearing thresholds were determined for 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000 Hz. Using a 2-alternative forced choice paradigm, 60 adults (19-84 years) completed vibrotactile detection thresholds (VDT) at the 5 and 10 Hz test frequencies. Result: A significant difference for age by group was identified at the 5 Hz test frequency. Spearman Correlations identified a significant correlation between age and pure tone hearing thresholds and the 5 Hz test frequency threshold. Conclusion: A relationship between pure tone hearing thresholds and labial somatosensory was identified. Future studies will begin the processing of modelling the complex multivariate sensorimotor relationship in healthy individuals before moving to a disordered population. © 2015 The Speech Pathology Association of Australia Limited. Source

Flaherty C.,University of Kentucky | Ely G.E.,University of Kentucky | Akers L.S.,Volunteers of America of Kentucky Inc. | Dignan M.,Markey Cancer Center | Bonistall Noland T.,University of Kentucky
Social Work in Health Care

The purpose of the current study was to examine social work student attitudes toward the social work profession's perspective on certain aspects of reproductive health in the United States: contraception, emergency contraception, and the Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine. Students at a large, public, land grant university were surveyed to determine whether their personal attitudes were in line with the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) stance on reproductive health outlined in the NASW policy statement on family planning and reproductive health. The relationship between levels of religious activity and attitudes toward these aspects of reproductive health was also examined. Results suggest that almost all of the respondents support public funding for family planning. Furthermore, almost all students indicate willingness to refer clients for general contraception. However, results related to emergency contraception indicate that 72% of students disagree that it should be available for adolescents over the counter, even with parental consent, which is inconsistent with the NASW perspective. Sixty-four percent of students report believing that the HPV vaccine is unsafe. Further, as levels of religious activity increased, acceptance of some of these aspects of reproductive health decreased. Implications for social work practice, education, and directions for future research are discussed. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

Kohler H.,Markey Cancer Center

This review recalls the history of homophilic antibody discovery and adaptation for cancer immunotherapy. Homophilic antibodies are a rare type of murine monoclonal antibody produced by plasmacytomas. They are self-binding in solid-phase assays and, in solution, are in an equilibrium of monomers and dimers. This equilibrium is controlled by antibody concentration and temperature, whereby low concentration and high temperature promote dimerization. The antibody domain that induces homophilic binding resides in the Vh region of the prototype T15 antibody. A peptide representing this domain can confer homophilicity to antibodies as a covalent conjugate. Homophilized antibodies have enhanced potency in target binding, induction of apoptosis, complement fixation and receptor-mediated signal growth inhibition. Titration of homophilic antibodies reveals a dose response skewed toward lower concentrations. The immunotherapeutic utility of homophilized antibodies has been demonstrated in vitro and in animal models. Clinical studies are needed to establish homophilic antibodies as novel, potent, immunotherapeutic agents. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd. Source

Zaytseva Y.Y.,Markey Cancer Center | Elliott V.A.,Markey Cancer Center | Rychahou P.,Markey Cancer Center | Kim J.T.,Markey Cancer Center | And 4 more authors.

Upregulation of fatty acid synthase (FASN), a key enzyme of de novo lipogenesis, is associated with metastasis in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the mechanisms of regulation are unknown. Since angiogenesis is crucial for metastasis, we investigated the role of FASN in the neovascularization of CRC. The effect of FASN on tumor vasculature was studied in orthotopic CRCs, the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and Matrigel plug models using immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescent staining and confocal microscopy. Cell secretion was evaluated by ELISA and antibody arrays. Proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis of endothelial cells (ECs) were assessed in CRC-EC coculture models. In this study, we found that stable knockdown of FASN decreased microvessel density in HT29 and HCT116 orthotopic CRCs and resulted in 'normalization' of tumor vasculature in both orthotopic and CAM models. Furthermore, FASN regulated secretion of pro- and antiangiogenic factors, including vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). Mechanisms associated with the antiangiogenic activity noted with knockdown of FASN included: downregulation of VEGF(189), upregulation of antiangiogenic isoform VEGF(165b) and a decrease in expression and activity of matrix metalloproteinase-9. Furthermore, conditioned medium from FASN knockdown CRC cells inhibited activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 and its downstream signaling and decreased proliferation, migration and tubulogenesis of ECs as compared with control medium. Together, these results suggest that cancer cell-associated FASN regulates tumor vasculature through alteration of the profile of secreted angiogenic factors and regulation of their bioavailability. Inhibition of FASN upstream of VEGF-A and other angiogenic pathways can be a novel therapeutic strategy to prevent or inhibit metastasis in CRC. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com. Source

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