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Malhotra N.,University of British Columbia | Upadhyay R.P.,Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital | Bhilwar M.,Vardhman Mahavir Medical College and Safdarjung Hospital | Choy N.,Market Analyst | Green T.,University of British Columbia
Journal of Tropical Pediatrics | Year: 2014

Aim: To examine the role of maternal diet in determining low birth weight (LBW) in Indian infants. Methods: Data from the National Family Health Survey (2005-06) were used. Multivariate regression analysis was used to analyse the effect of maternal diet on infant birth weight. Results: Infants whose mothers consumed milk and curd daily [odds ratio (OR), 1.17; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-1.29]; fruits daily (OR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.36) or weekly (OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 1.02-1.24) had higher odds of not having a low birth weight baby. The daily consumption of pulses and beans (OR, 1.18; 95% CI, 1.02-1.36) increased the odds while weekly consumption of fish (OR, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.70-0.89) decreased the odds of not having a LBW infant. Intake of iron-folic acid supplements during pregnancy increased birth weight by 6.46 g per month. Conclusion: Improved intake of micronutrient-rich foods can increase birth weight. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press.

Leonard E.,Market Analyst | Clementson B.,Western Carolina University
New Review of Information Networking | Year: 2012

This exploratory study combines quantitative and qualitative data on the innovative characteristics of business librarians and the organizational culture of their libraries. Because of the perceived connection between innovation and entrepreneurship, we surveyed business librarians from ten United States universities with top entrepreneurship programs. To gauge the innovative characteristics of organizational culture, we conducted interviews with managers from some of those libraries. Our results suggest that our survey population skews heavily toward the innovative side of Everett Rogers' innovation adopter categories. This raises the questions about the necessity of late-adopters for innovations to completely diffuse through a particular population. We conclude that while innovation is essential to these librarians and their managers, it must be clearly defined and openly supported by library administration. Copyright © Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

Dagoumas A.,Market Analyst | Dagoumas A.,University of Piraeus | Kitsios F.,University of Macedonia
Sustainable Cities and Society | Year: 2014

The paper aims at assessing the impact of the economic crisis on energy poverty in Greece. It monitors the electricity consumption per capita, its relationship with the economic growth and its comparison with other European countries. Moreover, the paper provides new indicators and information, monitoring data related to the capability of people to pay their electricity bills, the power cuts made due to the economic crisis and the social policy of the government for sensitive social groups. Results show that the standard of living in Greece has been increased considerably compared to other countries and that people require time to respond to the new economic conditions and to change their habits. It provides evidence that the economic crisis has considerable effect on the electricity consumption and on the capability of people to pay their bills. However, the power cuts depict mainly the unwillingness of customers to continue paying bills for properties that they do not use or do not provide any revenue for them. The incapability of customers to pay the electricity bills on time, create serious liquidity problem for the Public Power Corporation, which enables the danger of transforming an energy poverty issue to an energy security issue. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Chen S.,Market Analyst | Wilson W.,North Dakota State University | Larsen R.,North Dakota State University | Dahl B.,North Dakota State University
Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics | Year: 2015

The importance of calibrating hedging strategies for processors has escalated primarily due to the sharply increased volatility of futures, product, and by-product prices. The purpose of this paper is to analyze price risk-management strategies for wheat flour milling using copula distributions. While the application is for flour milling, it has similarities with other processing industries which confront one or more ingredients, one or more outputs, and futures for one of the commodities and/or products. The paper develops utility maximizing models encompassing expected return and risk. Alternative scenarios are evaluated. First, the models were used to derive optimal hedge ratios, as well as various measures of risk and return under alternative scenarios, and hedge durations. The results indicated hedge ratios are typically less than 1. The hedge ratios for the Mean-value-at-risk (M-VaR)-Copula model increased with greater durations. Second, the VaR for the M-VaR-Copula was in most cases less than the noncopula specifications. Thus, noncopula models may over state risk as represented by VaR. © 2015 Canadian Agricultural Economics Society.

Djukanovic G.,Market Analyst
TMS Light Metals | Year: 2010

Ongoing reform in Russian electricity and railway sectors should not affect UC Rusal's low cost position in near future. The risk for the future of the company would be minimal as long as energy and raw material costs remain low. The strategy of the UC Rusal will be to secure Nol position in the world among aluminium producers and maintain low cost production. This implies the following: - secure self-sufficient bauxite & alumina supplies - secure & maintain low cost electricity supplies - increase production of value added products and spec, alloys (up to 50% of total Al production) - diversify business area, the key of the new strategy - increase the quality of corporate governance Chalco is also pursuing huge investments projects, especially overseas, in purpose to secure base for future growth and market position in China. However, it failed to purchase the stake in Rio Tinto PLC in US $ 19.5 billion offer earlier this year. Among Chalco's main goals and achievements remain: - plans to double its bauxite reserves to 600 mil. ton by 2009 - decreasing share at home alumina market production: accounted for 96% of China's alumina production on beginning of 2005, 80% on beginning of 2006 and some 65% on beg 2007 - plans to raise primary Al capacity to 5 mil. t by 2010 (US$ 7bn) - won Aurukun project before 10 top mining competitors (2005) - all Chalco's production facilities have been granted ISO 9001: 2000;OHSAS 18001 : 1999 and GB/T 28001 -2001 certificates.

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