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Lee K.I.,Kangwon National University | Choi B.K.,Maritime Security Research Center
Journal of the Korean Physical Society | Year: 2014

A new method for measuring the speed of sound (SOS) in trabecular bone by using a time reversal acoustics (TRA) focusing system was proposed and validated with measurements obtained by using the conventional pulse-transmission technique. The SOS measured in 14 bovine femoral trabecular bone samples by using the two methods was highly correlated each other, although the SOS measured by using the TRA focusing system was slightly lower by an average of 2.2 m/s. The SOS measured by using the two methods showed high correlation coefficients of r = 0.92 with the apparent bone density, consistent with the behavior in human trabecular bone in vitro. These results prove the efficacy of the new method based on the principle of TRA to measure the SOS in trabecular bone. © 2014, The Korean Physical Society.


Lee K.I.,Kangwon National University | Choi B.K.,Maritime Security Research Center
Journal of the Korean Physical Society | Year: 2014

The present study aims to investigate the propagation of ultrasonic guided waves in an acrylic plate as a cortical-bone-mimicking phantom. The velocities of the guided waves in a 5-mm-thick acrylic plate were measured by using the axial transmission technique. A pure A0 Lamb mode could be successfully launched in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate through a time reversal process of Lamb waves, consistent with the fact that the time reversal process can automatically compensate for the dispersive nature of Lamb waves. The experimental velocities of the slow guided wave (SGW) and the time-reversed Lamb wave were found to be in reasonable agreement with the theoretical group velocity of the A0 Lamb mode, suggesting that both the SGW and the time-reversed Lamb wave excited in the 5-mm-thick acrylic plate correspond to the A0 Lamb mode. These results suggest that the time reversal process of Lamb waves can be usefully applied to noninvasive characterization of long cortical bones. © 2014, The Korean Physical Society.


Choi D.-L.,South Sea Research Institute | Kim H.-J.,Maritime Security Research Center | Jou H.-T.,Maritime Security Research Center | Jeong S.-K.,Maritime Security Research Center | And 2 more authors.
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2013

Multi-channel seismic profiles and swath bathymetric data were used to investigate the tectonic evolution of the South Korea Plateau (SKP) associated with the opening of the East Sea (Japan Sea). The SKP is a deformed fragment of continental crust with numerous horsts and sediment-filled grabens. Three sedimentary units in the plateau were identified, which consist of the lower sequence (Unit I) interpreted as syn-rifting deposition during the early to middle Miocene, and the middle and upper sequences (Units II and III) considered as post-rifting deposition since the late Miocene. The fault system in the SKP includes the South Korea Plateau Fault (SKPF) trending NNW-SSE and smaller en echelon normal faults oriented NE-SW. We interpreted the information to postulate that the formation of the SKPF is the result of divergent right-lateral strike-slip movement in the SKP. This study suggests that the dextral movement of the SKP was induced by WSW-ward propagation of the spreading center located in the Japan Basin from the early to middle Miocene times. © 2013 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Shin C.-W.,Ocean Circulation and Climate Research Division | Byun S.-K.,Ocean Circulation and Climate Research Division | Kim C.,Ocean Circulation and Climate Research Division | Lee J.H.,Ocean Circulation and Climate Research Division | And 4 more authors.
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2013

Seasonal variations in the low-salinity intermediate water (ESIW) in the region south of the sub-polar front of the East Sea were investigated by using historical hydrographic data. The salinity of the representative density (sigma-0=27. 2) of the ESIW was minimal in summer and maximal in winter in the region south of the sub-polar front. The selected four subregions showed different salinity variations. In the west of Oki Spur and the Yamato Basin, salinity fluctuated similarly, with a minimum during summer. In the Ulleung Basin and northwest of Sado Island, however, variations in salinity showed two minima, one is in winter and the other is in summer. These results imply differences in the flow path of the ESIW into the region south of the sub-polar front over time. © 2013 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Kang J.,Korean Seas Geosystem Research Center | Woo H.J.,Korean Seas Geosystem Research Center | Jang S.,Maritime Security Research Center | Jeong K.-S.,Korean Seas Geosystem Research Center | And 4 more authors.
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2016

Rare earth elements (REEs: La-Lu) in surface sediments collected from the mouth and middle tidal flats of Gomso Bay, South Korea, in August 2011 and May 2012 were analyzed to investigate the fine-grained sediment provenance. The upper continental crust (UCC)-normalized light REEs (LREEs: La to Nd) were more enriched than the middle REEs (MREEs: Sm to Dy) and heavy REEs (HREEs: Ho to Lu), resulting in large (La/Yb)UCC (1.9 ± 0.4) to (Gd/Yb)UCC (1.4 ± 0.2) ratios. The monthly (La/Yb)UCC values differed between the mouth and middle tidal flats due to deposition of fine-grained sediments that originated from distant rivers (the Geum and Yeongsan) and the Jujin Stream, located on the southern shore of the inner bay. We observed relative reductions in the (La/Yb)UCC value and REE content in the sediments from the mouth of the bay compared with those from Jujin Stream sediments. Confined to the middle tidal flat around the KH Line of Jujin Stream, the sediments, most enriched in LREEs but depleted in Eu, were distributed in August as strong Jujin Stream runs. Here, we suggest that an increase in LREE/HREE and decrease in MREE/LREE ratios can be used as a proxy to identify the Jujin Stream provenance in mixed riverine sediments and to trace Jujin Stream sediments within the Gomso Bay tidal flat, especially in the summer rainy season. © 2016, Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Kim J.,Hanyang University | Choi J.W.,Hanyang University | Kang D.,Maritime Security Research Center
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2012

An acoustic laboratory experiment using 5-MHz signals was conducted to measure the volume backscattering strengths of red-tide causing microalgae, Chattonella antiqua, which is one of the species of harmful algal blooms in the coastal waters of Korea and Japan. The measured backscattering strengths increased with cell abundance, with a slope of approximately 10 dB per decade increase in cell numbers. The density and sound speed ratios of the Chattonella cell to the water medium were estimated via the density gradient centrifugation method and the time-travel difference method, respectively. Finally, the measured backscattering strengths were compared to those predicted by a fluid-sphere scattering model, in which the estimated sound speed and density contrasts were used as input parameters. © 2012 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Kum B.-C.,Maritime Security Research Center | Shin D.-H.,Maritime Security Research Center
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

Two surveys were conducted in January 2006 and September 2007 with multibeam echosounder to investigate the dune shape, migration rate, and bedload transport rate using dune-tracking method on an offshore sand ridge at southern Gyeonggi Bay. The migration rates of dunes range from 1.8 myr-1 to 56.0 myr-1, at the upper northwestern side of sand ridge towards the southwest direction and from the center of the sand ridge towards the northeast direction respectively. Large (i.e. length 10-100 m) dunes show faster migration (0.3-23.4 myr-1) than very large (i.e. length > 100 m) dunes because larger dunes have required a larger volume of sediments to be displaced. The decreases in dimensions and migration rates of dunes from the center of sand ridge to the lower part of southeastern side on the sand ridge can be ascribed to the decrease of sandy sediments availability, tidal currents with depth, and the coarsening of surface sediments from the crest of the sand ridge to the trough. Bedload transport rates on the basis of migration rates and dune dimensions decrease from 74.5 m2yr-1 at C transect to 35.6 m2yr-1 at R-02 transect.


Hyun S.,Maritime Security Research Center | Kimoto K.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Cho S.-H.,Coastal Ecology and Technique Institute
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

To investigate the occurrence of modern living planktonic foraminiferal species and their seasonal variations around Jeju Island, we conducted planktonic foraminiferal sampling at KIOST's regular sampling sites during 16 months. In total seven genus and 16 modern planktonic foraminiferal species were identified with six dominant species. Dominant species were Gloigerinoides sacculifer, Globigerinoides ruber, Globigerina bulloides, Noegloboquadrina dutertrei, Pulleniatina obliquiloculata, and Globorotalia inflata. Most of the species were characterized as being typical subtropical species and showed seasonal variations and/or intermittent occurrence from season to season. The occurrence of living foraminifera revealed a strong relationship with water temperature, but not with salinity. Species succession seems to occur along with water temperature changes. Some patch distribution and water temperature dependences appear to be significant since there is a high degree of variation in the occurrence patterns of species and standing stock. More detailed quantitative study is necessary to confirm the species diversity and seasonal variations of planktonic foraminifera and related ocean environmental changes.


Kang D.,Maritime Security Research Center | Lim S.,Maritime R and nter | Lee H.,Maritime Security Research Center | Doh J.,Maritime R and nter | And 2 more authors.
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

The toxic, Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) caused by the Cochlodinium polykrikoides have a serious impact on the coastal waters of Korea. In this study, the acoustic detection system was developed for rapid HABs detection, based on the acoustic backscattering properties of the C. polykrikoides. The developed system was mainly composed of a pulser-receiver board, a signal processor board, a control board, a network board, a power board, ultrasonic sensors (3.5 and 5.0 MHz), an environmental sensor, GPS, and a land-based control unit. To evaluate the performance of the system, a trail was done at a laboratory, and two in situ trials were conducted: (1) when there was no red tide, and (2) when there was red tide. In the laboratory evaluation, the system performed well in accordance with the number of C. polykrikoides in the received level. Second, under the condition when there was no red tide in the field, there was a good correlation between the acoustic data and sampling data. Finally, under the condition when there was red tide in the field, the system successfully worked at various densities in accordance with the number of C. polykrikoides, and the results corresponded with the sampling data and monitoring result of NFRDI (National Fisheries Research & Development Institute). From the laboratory and field evaluations, the developed acoustic detection system for early detecting HABs has demonstrated that it could be a significant system to monitor the occurrence of HABs in coastal regions.

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