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Nowy Targ, Poland

Nowakowska J.,Medical University of Gdansk | Pikul P.,Medical University of Gdansk | Ciura K.,Medical University of Gdansk | Piotrowicz J.,Maritime Institute in Gdansk
Central European Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2013

Chromatographic properties of five steroid drugs: cortisone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, prednisolone and norgestrel have been studied by normal-, reversed-phase and hydrophilic neutral cyano-bonded silica stationary phase with five binary mobile phases (acetonitrile-water, acetonitrile-DMSO, acetonitrile-methanol, acetone-petroleum ether, acetone-water) in which the concentration of organic modifier was varied from 0 to 100% (v/v). This study reports the optimization of steroid hormones separation. Chromatographic retention data and possible retention mechanisms are discussed. Separation abilities of mobile and stationary phases were studied using the principal component analysis method. The best separation of methylprednisolone and prednisolone is with a chromatographic system included silica gel as stationary phase and mixture of acetonitrile and DMSO (10:90 v/v). These two anti-inflammatory drugs can be fast separated from norgestrel when CN is used as stationary phase and acetone and water (40:60 v/v) as mobile phase. The highest values of the parameter Δ(ΔG) and alfa for cortisone and hydrocortisone was observed in case of using CN as stationary phase and water-acetonitryle (40:60 v/v) as mobile phase. © 2013 Versita Warsaw and Springer-Verlag Wien. Source

Galka M.,Adam Mickiewicz University | Tobolski K.,Adam Mickiewicz University | Bubak I.,Maritime Institute in Gdansk
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Late Glacial and Early Holocene vegetation history and lake level fluctuations in NE Poland were described based on high-resolution plant macrofossils analyses and records of pollen, diatoms, and radiocarbon dates. The development of Lake Kojle-Perty began in the Allerød (GI-1c). Cooling during the Younger Dryas (GS-1) led to the development of communities of heliophyte herbaceous plants. Palaeobotanical and lithostratigraphical records demonstrate that abrupt climate changes at approximately 11,600 and 9450 cal. BP resulted in distinct changes in the vegetation and water level of Lake Kojle-Perty. Climate warming in the Younger Dryas-Holocene transition (11,600 cal. BP) caused the development of the terrestrial vegetation dominated by cold deciduous forest (Betula), and appearance of thermophylious aquatic plants: Typha latifolia, Najas marina, and Ceratophyllum demersum. A gradual decrease in the lake level since 11,200 cal. BP is evident from the appearance of plants from shallow lake environments (Potamogeton natans and Hippuris vulgaris). The low water levels since 10,700 cal. BP resulting from increased temperature and evaporation caused the development of peat on limnic sediments. The dry and warm climatic phase with lowest lake level in the lakes of NE Poland were coeval with the expansion of temperate deciduous forests (Corylus and Ulmus) that commenced at approximately 10,500 cal. BP. A distinctive increase in lake levels at approximately 9450 cal. BP is suggested by the development of rush plants such as Cladium mariscus and aquatic plants such as Najas marina, Chara sp., and Nuphar lutea in the shallow parts of Lake Kojle-Perty. The increased lake levels correspond with the expansion of Alnus glutinosa in North-East (NE) Poland. Our reconstructions of the vegetation development and lake level changes align with results from other studies in the region. © 2014. Source

Marcinkowski T.,Maritime Institute in Gdansk | Szmytkiewicz M.,Polish Academy of Sciences
Journal of Coastal Research | Year: 2013

The study is focused on improvement of beach fill effectiveness due to construction of submerged breakwaters at an extremely sediment-hungry coastal segment, situated in the Gulf of Gdansk in Gdynia municipality. The studied coastal segment stretches over 500 metres between a cliff headland belonging to a local nature reserve and a walkway pier. The segment has been heavily eroded, resulting in disturbances to the operation of the wharf, as well as the local urban infrastructure. Geophysical records show that the sediment layer in the coastal zone hardly exists. To reduce the vulnerability of this coastal section a 3-segment submerged breakwater was constructed in 2006. It was situated 150 m offshore and the crest was positioned 0.5 m below MWL. The modeling was aimed at precise mapping of structures' effect and was carried out using MIKE 21/3. Bathymetric maps from 2005-2010 were used to verify the calculated sea bottom changes. The comparison of wave heights and water circulations, calculated both with and without the presence of the structures, showed that during storms the wave energy reaching the shore is reduced by 45% for the mean water level when the structures are present. For storm surges of 1.1 m the effectiveness of the structures is reduced to some 20%. For the mean water level the reduction of water circulation velocity is 20-25%. The presence of submerged breakwaters slow down the migration of sediment; the increase of residence time of beach fill was estimated between 15 and 20%. © Coastal Education & Research Foundation 2013. Source

Zauchan J.,Maritime Institute in Gdansk
Marine Policy | Year: 2014

This paper reviews the development of sea basin maritime spatial planning (MSP) through the concerted efforts of several coastal nations based on the case of the Baltic Sea Region. Additionally, the readiness of Poland to assume its place within the existing sea-basin planning system is analyzed since Poland, as one of the last countries in the region to do so, announced the official commencement of MSP on November 18, 2013. The paper analyzes the progress of MSP in the Baltic Sea Region and discusses the question of the interplay between planning efforts executed nationally and the need to take into consideration much broader sea-basin contexts and perspectives. The conclusions drawn at the end of the paper explain how macro-regional MSP systems influence planning efforts in individual countries and how they might alleviate barriers that are typically encountered in the initial stages of MSP development at national levels. © 2014 The Author. Source

Klusek Z.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Lisimenka A.,Maritime Institute in Gdansk
Oceanologia | Year: 2013

The paper presents results of investigations performed in a wave channel in order to determine associations between the dissipation of surface wave energy during breaking and acoustic noise emission. The experiments were carried out in fresh water in the Large Wave Flume (GWK) at the Forschungszentrum Küste (FZK) in Hanover (Germany). Relationships between the acoustic noise energy and losses of surface wave energy were estimated over the broad acoustic frequency band from 350 to 12 500 Hz, and the characteristic temporal changes of the spectral properties of noise in the breaking process were demonstrated. It was found that the ratio of acoustic noise energy generated during wave breaking to the energy dissipation of single plunging breakers with heights of 1.6-2.8 m were in the 10-9;-10-8; range and found to be in reasonable agreement with the results of some previous experiments performed for smaller scales of breaking wave. The study contributes to the development of a passive acoustic method for the parameterization of sea surface dynamic processes. © Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Oceanology, 2013. Source

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