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Aberdeen, United Kingdom

Collet B.,Marine Scotland - Marine Laboratory
Developmental and Comparative Immunology | Year: 2014

Viruses are the most serious pathogenic threat to the production of the main aquacultured salmonid species the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and the Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. The viral diseases Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis (IPN), Pancreatic Disease (PD), Infectious Haemorrhagic Necrosis (IHN), Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia (VHS), and Infectious Salmon Anaemia (ISA) cause massive economic losses to the global salmonid aquaculture industry every year. To date, no solution exists to treat livestock affected by a viral disease and only a small number of efficient vaccines are available to prevent infection. As a consequence, understanding the host immune response against viruses in these fish species is critical to develop prophylactic and preventive control measures. The innate immune response represents an important part of the host defence mechanism preventing viral replication after infection. It is a fast acting response designed to inhibit virus propagation immediately within the host, allowing for the adaptive specific immunity to develop. It has cellular and humoral components which act in synergy. This review will cover inflammation responses, the cell types involved, apoptosis, antimicrobial peptides. Particular attention will be given to the type I interferon system as the major player in the innate antiviral defence mechanism of salmonids. Viral evasion strategies will also be discussed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Wright P.J.,Marine Scotland - Marine Laboratory
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2014

Age at maturity is one of the key variables determining the maximum rate of population growth and so may be a good indicator of stock recovery potential. Spawner age composition may also affect the probability of high recruitment and so could be relevant to stock recovery. This study examined the relation between early survival, age at maturity, and the demographic composition of spawners in many cod and haddock stocks. Reported measures of fecundity and maturity were used to estimate total egg production for comparison with numbers at age 1 and age at 50% maturity. The instantaneous rate of population growth (r) was estimated for cohorts from life history tables during periods when spawning biomass was depleted (e.g. pa) using reproductive and mortality data for stocks. Age-specific survival was found to be far more important than reproductive rate in determining population growth rate. Stocks that experienced low and more variable survival matured early and had a high relative fecundity. Hence, while early maturing stocks have the potential for high population growth following favourable recruitment events, they would not be expected to recover any faster than late maturing stocks because of the generally low early survival rate that they experience. Measures of spawner age diversity and mean age were found to be positively correlated with offspring survivorship in a few cod stocks. However, in general, it appears difficult to infer recovery potential from life history characteristics, which may be expected, given that regional variation in reproductive success will ultimately be expected to shape local reproductive schedules. © Crown copyright 2014.


Needle C.L.,Marine Scotland - Marine Laboratory
ICES Journal of Marine Science | Year: 2014

In recent years, scientists providing advice to fisheries managers have been granted access to an increasing range of spatio-temporal data from fishing vessels, using tools such as vessel monitoring systems and electronic observation platforms. This information should allow for the provision of more germane advice on the activity of vessels, and hence the likely impact of management measures which are becoming increasingly spatial in nature. However, the development of appropriate management simulation and assessment models has lagged behind the availability of these new data. This paper presents an accessible spatio-temporal simulation framework (Honeycomb) which features a weekly time-step, multiple stocks and vessels, and economic decision rules and applies this to a case study of a spatial evaluation of a simple closed-area fishery policy. We conclude that the development and utilization of such spatio-temporal simulation models is a key research task for fisheries in which both spatial fisheries data and spatial fisheries management are becoming paramount. © 2014 © Crown copyright 2014.


Wright P.J.,Marine Scotland - Marine Laboratory
Fisheries Research | Year: 2013

Understanding the causes of variation in stock reproductive potential (SRP) is challenging due to the difficulty in assessing the relative contribution of environmental, demographic and genotypic influences. This review explores how experimental and comparative field studies have been used to disentangle sources of variation in maturity, fecundity and the timing of spawning. By comparing reproductive parameters and corresponding environmental conditions among stocks of a species it is clear that demography, energetic state and temperature are important factors affecting variation in SRP. Common garden and environment experiments have confirmed that there is also a substantial genetic component to regional differences in reproductive investment and timing of spawning. Environmental manipulation experiments have helped to elucidate the proximate mechanisms underlying many reproductive processes. Together these different sources of information have provided a foundation for the development of statistical and individual based modelling approaches that help explain variation in SRP. In the near future, genomic investigations may provide a direct means to account for genetic influences on reproductive variation. Given that the age and size structure of many fish stocks has become truncated through fishing, a greater focus on the contribution of reproductive life span to SRP is also needed. © 2012.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: INFRADEV-4-2014-2015 | Award Amount: 9.04M | Year: 2015

Marine (blue) biotechnology is the key to unlocking the huge economic potential of the unique biodiversity of marine organisms. This potential remains largely underexploited due to lack of connectivity between research services, practical and cultural difficulties in connecting science with industry, and high fragmentation of regional research, development and innovation (RDI) policies. To overcome these barriers, EMBRIC (European Marine Biological Resource Infrastructure Cluster) will link biological and social science research infrastructures (EMBRC, MIRRI, EU-OPENSCREEN, ELIXIR, AQUAEXCEL, RISIS) and will build inter-connectivity along three dimensions: science, industry and regions. The objectives of EMBRIC are to: (1) develop integrated workflows of high quality services for access to biological, analytical and data resources, and deploy common underpinning technologies and practices; (2) strengthen the connection of science with industry by engaging companies and by federating technology transfer (TT) services; (3) defragment RDI policies and involve maritime regions with the construction of EMBRIC. Acceleration of the pace of scientific discovery and innovation from marine bioresources will be achieved through: (i) establishment of multidisciplinary service-oriented technological workflows; (ii) joint development activities focusing on bioprospection for novel marine natural products, and marker-assisted selection in aquaculture; (iii) training and knowledge transfer; (iv) pilot transnational access to cluster facilities and services. EMBRIC will also connect TT officers from contrasted maritime regions to promote greater cohesion in TT practices. It will engage with policy-makers with the aim of consolidating a perennial pan-European virtual infrastructure cluster rooted in the maritime regions of Europe and underpinning the blue bioeconomy.

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