Marine Organism Investigations

Killaloe, Ireland

Marine Organism Investigations

Killaloe, Ireland
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Minchin D.,Marine Organism Investigations | Minchin D.,Klaipeda University | Nunn J.,Cultra Co. | Murphy J.,National University of Ireland | And 2 more authors.
Management of Biological Invasions | Year: 2017

The status of the Asian kelp Undaria pinnatifida, was determined using the abundance and distribution range method during a rapid assessment survey. This kelp was first found on the northeast coast of Ireland at Carrickfergus Marina in Belfast Lough, Northern Ireland in 2012. It was not known in Ireland in 2006. U. pinnatifida was one of a set of target species searched for during 2012, and initially it occurred at low levels. By 2013 its population had expanded within this marina. In 2014, some tens of individuals were found for the first time over a hundred kilometres to the south in the Republic of Ireland at Carlingford Lough. Both senescent and young plants were found at these sites. In 2015, the kelp appeared at Glenarm Marina 40 km to the north of Carrickfergus; and in the following year, the population had increased marginally. The kelp was not found at a marina on the south side of Belfast Lough, most probably due to fluctuations of salinity. This account discusses the value of the ADR method for evaluating the recent arrival of this large and easily recognised species. © 2017 The Author(s) and REABIC.

Ryland J.S.,University of Swansea | Bishop J.D.D.,Marine Biological Association of The United Kingdom | de Blauwe H.,Watergang 6 | El Nagar A.,Marine Biological Association of The United Kingdom | And 3 more authors.
Aquatic Invasions | Year: 2011

Three apparently non-native species of Bugula occur in marinas and harbours in Atlantic Europe. The most common, B. neritina, was known from a few sites in southern Britain and northern France during the 20 th century, following its discovery at Plymouth by 1911. During the 1950-60s it was abundant in a dock heated by power station effluent at Swansea, south Wales, where it flourished until the late 1960s, while water temperatures were 7-10°C above ambient. It disappeared after power generation ceased, when summer temperatures probably became insufficient to support breeding. Details of disappearances have not been recorded but B. neritina was not seen in Britain between c1970 and 1999. Since 2000, it has been recorded along the south coast of England, and subsequently in marinas in the southern North Sea, Ireland and southern Scotland, well to the north of its former range, as well as along the Atlantic coast from Spain to The Netherlands. It has also been introduced to outlying localities such as the Azores and Tristan da Cunha. We report that this rapidly spreading form has the same COI haplotype as B. neritina currently invasive elsewhere in the world. B. simplex has been reported less, with 1950s records from settlement panels in some Welsh docks. It has not been targeted in most recent marina surveys but has been observed in southwest England, Belgium and The Netherlands. There are almost no recent records of B. stolonifera, though it was probably introduced to a few British and Irish ports prior to the 1950s. Its current status in most of western Europe is unknown but it has been reported as expanding throughout most of the world during the last 60 years. Having poorly known distributions, B. simplex and B. stolonifera should be recorded during future monitoring of alien species in Atlantic Europe. Illustrations to aid identification are included for all three species. © 2011 The Author(s).

Minchin D.,Marine Organism Investigations | Minchin D.,Klaipeda University | Cook E.J.,Scottish Association for Marine Science | Clark P.F.,Natural History Museum in London
Aquatic Invasions | Year: 2013

Ninety alien species have been identified from British marine and brackish environments; of which 58 are established. Their arrival has been principally due to shipping and imported consignments of cultured species. The majority of alien species were initially reported from the English Channel, with many subsequently spreading northwards to the North or Celtic Seas. The majority of aliens in Britain originate from the North Pacific (N=35), followed by the North-west Atlantic (N=22). Additional alien species may be expected as a result of continued trade, port, and marina developments. Alterations in climate and extreme weather events are likely to result in future changes to the distribution of marine and brackish water alien species around the British coast. © 2013 The Author(s).

Galil B.S.,National Institute of Oceanography of Israel | Marchini A.,University of Pavia | Occhipinti-Ambrogi A.,University of Pavia | Minchin D.,Marine Organism Investigations | And 4 more authors.
Ethology Ecology and Evolution | Year: 2014

The European Union lacks a comprehensive framework to address the threats posed by the introduction and spread of marine non-indigenous species (NIS). Current efforts are fragmented and suffer substantial gaps in coverage. In this paper we identify and discuss issues relating to the assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of introductions in European Seas (ES), based on a scientifically validated information system of aquatic non-indigenous and cryptogenic species, AquaNIS. While recognizing the limitations of the existing data, we extract information that can be used to assess the relative risk of introductions for different taxonomic groups, geographic regions and likely vectors. The dataset comprises 879 multicellular NIS. We applied a country-based approach to assess patterns of NIS richness in ES, and identify the principal introduction routes and vectors, the most widespread NIS and their spatial and temporal spread patterns. Between 1970 and 2013, the number of recorded NIS has grown by 86, 173 and 204% in the Baltic, Western European margin and the Mediterranean, respectively; 52 of the 879 NIS were recorded in 10 or more countries, and 25 NIS first recorded in European seas since 1990 have since been reported in five or more countries. Our results highlight the ever-rising role of shipping (commercial and recreational) as a vector for the widespread and recently spread NIS. The Suez Canal, a corridor unique to the Mediterranean, is responsible for the increased introduction of new thermophilic NIS into this warming sea. The 2020 goal of the EU Biodiversity Strategy concerning marine Invasive Alien Species may not be fully attainable. The setting of a new target date should be accompanied by scientifically robust, sensible and pragmatic plans to minimize introductions of marine NIS and to study those present. © 2014 The Author(s). Published by Taylor & Francis.

Lehtiniemi M.,Finnish Environment Institute | Ojaveer H.,University of Tartu | David M.,Dr. Matej David Consult | Galil B.,National Institute of Oceanography of Israel | And 7 more authors.
Marine Policy | Year: 2015

Non-indigenous species (NIS) are recognized as a global threat to biodiversity and monitoring their presence and impacts is considered a prerequisite for marine environmental management and sustainable development. However, monitoring for NIS seldom takes place except for a few baseline surveys. With the goal of serving the requirements of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive and the EU Regulation on the prevention and management of the introduction and spread of invasive alien species, the paper highlights the importance of early detection of NIS in dispersal hubs for a rapid management response, and of long-term monitoring for tracking the effects of NIS within recipient ecosystems, including coastal systems especially vulnerable to introductions. The conceptual framework also demonstrates the need for port monitoring, which should serve the above mentioned requirements but also provide the required information for implementation of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships Ballast Water and Sediments. Large scale monitoring of native, cryptogenic and NIS in natural and man-made habitats will collectively lead to meeting international requirements. Cost-efficient rapid assessments of target species may provide timely information for managers and policy-advisers focusing on particular NIS at particular localities, but this cannot replace long-term monitoring. To support legislative requirements, collected data should be verified and stored in a publicly accessible and routinely updated database/information system. Public involvement should be encouraged as part of monitoring programs where feasible. © 2015.

PubMed | Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Trinity College Dublin and Marine Organism Investigations
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Journal of animal ecology | Year: 2016

Both climate warming and biological invasions are prominent drivers of global environmental change and it is important to determine how they interact. However, beyond tolerance and reproductive thresholds, little is known about temperature dependence of invaders performance, particularly in the light of competitive attributes of functionally similar native species. We used experimentally derived energy budgets and field temperature data to determine whether anticipated warming will asymmetrically affect the energy budgets of the globally invasive Ponto-Caspian mysid crustacean Hemimysis anomala and a functionally similar native competitor (Mysis salemaai) whose range is currently being invaded. In contrast to M.salemaai, which maintains a constant feeding rate with temperature leading to diminishing energy assimilation, we found that H.anomala increases its feeding rate with temperature in parallel with growing metabolic demand. This enabled the invader to maintain high energy assimilation rates, conferring substantially higher scope for growth compared to the native analogue at spring-to-autumn temperatures. Anticipated warming will likely exacerbate this energetic asymmetry and remove the winter overlap, which, given the seasonal limitation of mutually preferred prey, appears to underpin coexistence of the two species. These results indicate that temperature-dependent asymmetries in scope for growth between invaders and native analogues comprise an important mechanism determining invasion success under warming climates. They also highlight the importance of considering relevant spectra of ecological contexts in predicting successful invaders and their impacts under warming scenarios.

Minchin D.,Marine Organism Investigations | Minchin D.,Klaipeda University
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2012

A rapid assessment, using the abundance and distribution range method, was used to evaluate the status of a large branching bryozoan, Zoobotryon verticillatum attached to the immersed part of marina pontoons in the Canary Islands. Colonies were also found attached to the hulls of leisure craft berthed alongside pontoons at three marinas in Lanzarote during 2012. Low levels of abundance and distribution of the bryozoan occurred in marinas with a freshwater influence whereas in a sheltered marina lacking direct freshwater inputs colonies occurred at ~2 per metre of combined pontoon length. While the occurrence of this bryozoan is recent it may be expected to occur elsewhere in Macaronesia most probably spread by leisure craft. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

McNeill G.,Agri Food and Biosciences Institute AFBI | Nunn J.,National Museums Northern Ireland | Minchin D.,Marine Organism Investigations
Aquatic Invasions | Year: 2010

Chains and solitary individuals of the slipper limpet Crepidula fornicata were found, some with egg capsules, at several localities within Belfast Lough on the north-east coast of Ireland during 2009. The species is widely dispersed, being found on the lower shore to depths of 7 m attached to scallops, mussels and stones and so is considered to be established. Shell winter growth checks indicated a possible arrival in or before 2004. While there have been previous records of this invasive species in Ireland, this is the only known established population. © 2010 The Author(s).

Minchin D.,Marine Organism Investigations | Minchin D.,Lough Derg Science Group
European Journal of Entomology | Year: 2010

Several thousands of the seven-spot ladybird Coccinella septempunctata L., descended upon a cruise ship over several hours in daylight while in port in Morocco in April 2009. The ship had recently arrived from South America. Despite a treatment of fumigation beetles were found living after fourteen days following the inoculation event. This observation indicates an ocean transmission of large numbers of this species could take place and might have happened in the past. © 2003 Institute of Entomology.

Narscius A.,Klaipeda University | Olenin S.,Klaipeda University | Zaiko A.,Klaipeda University | Minchin D.,Marine Organism Investigations
Ecological Informatics | Year: 2012

We describe the Biological Invasion Impact / Bio. pollution Assessment System (BINPAS), an online application for assessment of invasive species impacts. The methodology is based on a classification of the abundance and distribution range of alien species related to the magnitude of their impacts on communities, habitats and ecosystem functioning. Then formalized data is aggregated in a hybrid ranking and the system provides a "Biopollution Level" (BPL), ranging from "no measurable impact" (BPL = 0) to "massive impact" (BPL = 4). BINPAS was created using open source web technologies and relational database management systems. The system provides a user-friendly interface to calculate BPL, it allows for the sharing of ecological data, providing inter-regional comparisons and meta-analysis of biological invasion effects at different spatial and temporal scales. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

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