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Kang Y.-M.,Marine Bioprocess Co. | Qian Z.-J.,Marine Life Research | Lee B.-J.,Marine Bioprocess Co. | Kim Y.-M.,Pukyong National University
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering | Year: 2011

This study was conducted to evaluate the protective effects of GABA (gamma-amino butyric acid)-enriched sea tangle juice (STJ) by Lactobacillus brevis BJ-20 fermentation against alcohol hepatotoxicity. The protective effects were determined by assessing glutathione (GSH) content levels and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) activity against ethanol-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. In ethanol-treated cells, GSH content decreased to 44.35% of control (ethanol-untreated cell) values; however, treatment with fermented sea tangle juice (FSTJ) at a concentration of 25 μg/mL increased GSH levels to 67.08%. These results suggest that FSTJ may prevent intracellular GSH depletion caused by ethanol consumption. Treatment with FSTJ against alcohol-injured HepG2 cells resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in GGT activity. The expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) enzyme, a major contributor to ethanol-induced oxidative stress, was also completely inhibited in FSTJ-treated cells at a concentration of 25 μg/mL. Thus, this study demonstrated that ethanolinduced cytotoxicity could be attenuated by inhibition of GSH depletion, GGT activity, and CYP2E1 expression. © The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering and Springer 2011.

Moriyama K.,Matsumoto Dental University | Watanabe S.,Marine Life Research | Iida M.,Marine Life Research | Sahara N.,Matsumoto Dental University
Cell and Tissue Research | Year: 2010

Sicyopterus japonicus (Teleostei, Gobiidae) possesses a unique upper jaw dentition different from that known for any other teleosts. In the adults, many (up to 30) replacement teeth, from initiation to attachment, are arranged orderly in a semicircular-like strand within a capsule of connective tissue on the labial side of each premaxillary bone. We have applied histological, ultrastructural, and three-dimensional imaging from serial sections to obtain insights into the distribution and morphological features of the dental lamina in the upper jaw dentition of adult S. japonicus. The adult fish has numerous permanent dental laminae, each of which is an infolding of the oral epithelium at the labial side of the functional tooth and forms a thin plate-like structure with a wavy contour. All replacement teeth of a semicircular-like strand are connected to the platelike dental lamina by the outer dental epithelium and form a tooth family; neighboring tooth families are completely separated from each other. The new tooth germ directly buds off from the ventro-labial margin of the dental lamina, whereas no distinct free end of the dental lamina is present, even adjacent to this region. Cell proliferation concentrated at the ventro-labial margin of the dental lamina suggests that this region is the site for repeated tooth initiation. During tooth development, the replacement tooth migrates along a semicircular-like strand and eventually erupts through the dental lamina into the oral epithelium at the labial side of the functional tooth. This unique thin plate-like permanent dental lamina and the semicircular-like strand of replacement teeth in the upper jaw dentition of adult S. japonicus probably evolved as a dental adaptation related to the rapid replacement of teeth dictated by the specialized feeding habit of this algae-scraping fish. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

Jung W.-K.,Chosun University | Jung W.-K.,Marine Life Research | Park P.-J.,Korea University | Ahn C.-B.,Chonnam National University | Je J.-Y.,Chonnam National University
Food Chemistry | Year: 2014

Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were prepared from a chitooligomer solution by heating at 80 C for different times. A time-dependent increase in UV absorbance, browning, and fluorescence was observed upon heating, indicating formation of MRPs with heating of the chitooligomer solution. The formation was also evidenced by Fourier transform infrared and molecular weight distribution, using gel permeation chromatography. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH, and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS+)- scavenging activities, and MRPs, reducing power increased significantly (p < 0.05) with an increase in heating time of the chitooligomer solution. MRPs240 was formed after 240 min of heating and showed an inhibitory concentration required for 50% scavenging (IC50) value of 118 μg/ml (against DPPH), 266 μM ascorbic acid equivalent (AE)/mg MRPs240 (against ABTS +), and 521 μM AE/mg MRPs240 (against reducing power). MRPs240 exhibited lipid peroxidation inhibition activity in a linoleic acid emulsion, and the malondialdehyde concentration decreased from 29.6 to 8.4 μM. In addition, MRPs showed protection ability against the oxidative stress induced by H2O2 in Chang liver cells. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Qian Z.-J.,Marine Life Research | Kang K.-H.,Pukyong National University | Kim S.-K.,Pukyong National University
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering | Year: 2012

Seahorse (Hippocampus Kuda Bleeler) has been used as traditional medicine for thousands of years, in Eastern Asia. In this study of the methanol extract of fresh Hippocampus Kuda, the new compounds 2-ethyldecyl 2- ethylundecyl phthalate (1), 2, 12-diethyl-11-methylhexadecyl 2-ethyl-11- methylhexadecylphthalate (2), along with a known Bis(2-ethylheptyl) phthalate (3) were isolated. They were tested for their antioxidant activities, including lipid peroxidation inhibitory activity, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, alkyl radical scavenging, and cellular radicals; these can be detected using a fluorescence probe, 2',7'- dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), which could be converted to highly fluorescent dichlorofluorescein (DCF) with the presence of intracellular ROS on mouse macrophages, RAW264.7 cell. Compound (2) exhibited the highest antioxidant activity and inhibitory intracellular ROS than another compounds (1, 3). Furthermore, MTT assay showed no cytotoxicity on mouse macrophages cell (RAW264.7) and human fetal lung fibroblast cell line (MRC-5). This antioxidant property depends on concentration and increasing with increased amount of the compound. © The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering and Springer 2012.

Couto T.,Marine Life Research | Duarte B.,University of Lisbon | Barroso D.,Marine Life Research | Cacador I.,University of Lisbon | Marques J.C.,Marine Life Research
Functional Plant Biology | Year: 2013

Heavy metal concentrations present in the above-and beowground tissues of Scirpus maritimus L., Spartina maritima (Curtis) Fernald and Zostera noltii Hornem were analysed seasonally in the Mondego Estuary, Portugal. The sediments of the estuary were confirmed to contain only low concentrations of heavy metals. The belowground tissues of all three species showed higher heavy metal concentrations than the aboveground tissues. Although the sediments only contained low levels of contamination, because the area occupied by S. maritimus and Z. noltii was large, significant quantities of heavy metals were accumulated and exported to the surrounding water bodies. In contrast with observations of highly contaminated estuaries, it was found that in spite of the low level of contaminants in the sediments of the Mondego Estuary, aquatic vegetation functioned as a source of metals for nearby systems. © CSIRO 2013.

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