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Bergen, Norway

Remo S.C.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Hevroy E.M.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Olsvik P.A.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Fontanillas R.,Nutreco Aquaculture Research Center | And 2 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2014

The present study was carried out to investigate whether the dietary histidine requirement to reduce cataract development is higher than that for growth in Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar L.) after seawater transfer and whether dietary vegetable oils contribute to cataractogenesis. Duplicate groups of salmon smolts were fed ten experimental diets with either fish oil (FO) or a vegetable oil (VO) mix replacing 70Â % FO and histidine at five target levels (10, 12, 14, 16 and 18Â g His/kg diet) for 13 weeks after seawater transfer. The VO diet-fed fish exhibited somewhat inferior growth and feed intakes compared with the FO diet-fed fish, irrespective of the dietary histidine concentration. Both cataract prevalence and severity were negatively correlated with the dietary histidine concentration, while lens N-acetyl-histidine (NAH) concentrations were positively correlated with it. The fatty acid profiles of muscle, heart and lens reflected that of the dietary oils to a descending degree and did not affect the observed cataract development. Muscle, heart and brain histidine concentrations reflected dietary histidine concentrations, while the corresponding tissue imidazole (anserine, carnosine and NAH) concentrations appeared to saturate differently with time. The expression level of liver histidase was not affected by the dietary histidine concentration, while the liver antioxidant response was affected in the VO diet-fed fish on a transcriptional level. The lowest severity of cataracts could be achieved by feeding 13·4Â g His/kg feed, independently of the dietary lipid source. However, the present study also suggests that the dietary histidine requirement to minimise the risk of cataract development is 14·4Â g His/kg feed. © 2014 The Authors.

Waagbo R.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Berntssen M.H.G.,National Institute of Nutrition And Seafood Research | Danielsen T.,CAC | Helberg H.,National Veterinary Institute | And 7 more authors.
Aquaculture Nutrition | Year: 2013

By feeding Atlantic salmon diets with 64% of the fish oil (FO) replaced by vegetable oil, and with decreasing fishmeal (FM) inclusion levels from 213, 178 and 143 g kg-1 (accumulated level during the seawater phase) in a full-scale experiment producing 3.1 thousand tonnes fish, no significant negative effects on fish performance, health and product quality were observed. All dietary groups showed, however, moderate intestinal inflammation. Reduced growth and feed efficiency were seen with decreasing fishmeal inclusion levels. Two dietary groups demonstrated net marine protein production, while none of the groups showed net fish production (FIFO ≥1.65) due to the equal low FO inclusion. High plant oil level gave lower fillet level of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) compared with the levels surveyed on the Norwegian market. The study gave predictable incorporation rates of essential n-3 long-chain fatty acids in the fillet. Cooked salmon fillet from all dietary groups showed minor differences in sensory quality. Based on the present full-scale production results, dietary FM inclusion down to 160 g kg-1 (accumulated) during the seawater phase, concurrent to replacing ~70% of the FO with a suitable plant oil, is not regarded to represent any risk to fish performance, health or quality. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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