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Kang S.K.,Ocean Circulation and Climate Research Division | Jung K.T.,Marine Environments and Conservation Research Division | Yum K.-D.,Ocean energy | Lee K.-S.,Ocean energy | And 2 more authors.
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2012

Uldolmok waterway, located between an island off the southwestern tip of Korean peninsula and mainland, is famous for its strong tidal current that has a maximum current of about 6. 0m/s. A series of field observations along with numerical modeling have been carried out in order to understand the tidal dynamics in terms of the force balance along the whole waterway and the energy balance in the narrowest part of the waterway. First, analysis of the ADCP current and the tide level variation data reveals that the tidal dynamics along the total waterway (channel) is balanced dominantly between the pressure gradient and linear bottom frictional forces, with the phase lag of sea level difference for the semi-diurnal constituents leading the current phase about by 10°. Secondly, the result of the numerical modeling reveals that the tidal energy flux vector flows toward the narrowest section, indicating that there should be related nonlinear processes. Through the numerical model experiment with multi-components, the convergence of (M2 + S2) tidal energy flux of 6. 68 × 107 Joule/s in the narrow area of the Uldolmok waterway is explained mainly by the energy consumption of 73% through the nonlinear generation of shallow water components and by the bottom frictional energy dissipation of 27%. This reveals that the remarkably strong nonlinear process dominates in the narrowest section of the Uldolmok waterway, compared with other areas, such as Yellow and East China Seas where the total M2 energy flux through the open boundary is balanced in terms of the bottom dissipation (Kang et al. 2003; Choi 1980). © 2012 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Lee H.J.,Marine Environments and Conservation Research Division
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2014

Sediment dynamical processes began to be systematically monitored in the west coast of Korea facing the eastern Yellow Sea in the 1990s. The early investigations were largely conducted aboard vessels that provided results where the resolution was highly restricted in both temporal and spatial aspects. However, full-fledged autonomous instruments introduced early in the 2000s allowed for a quantum leap in the level of this sub-field of sedimentology. The investigated sites include various environments such as estuaries, bays, tidal flats, beaches, and offshore deposits. Among them, a total of seven sites were selected for the review: Han estuary, Daeho tidal flats, Garolim Bay, Saemangeum Region, Byunsan Beach, Gomso Bay, and Huksan Mud Belt. The major results from each site were briefly summarized. The summary clearly demonstrates that wind-generated currents and waves particularly during winter should be carefully considered in interpreting sedimentary environments. This is because winter-season processes interrupt or actively displace much of the sediments worked by tidal currents in the remaining seasons. The summary hence suggests that seasonal investigations of sediment dynamics are necessary to understand shallow-water sedimentation in the west coast of Korea that is governed complicatedly by two major forcing agents: waves and tidal currents. © 2014 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Song K.-M.,Marine Environments and Conservation Research Division
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2013

The vertical structure of sediment temperatures in the tidal flats of Geunso Bay and Seonyu Island in western Korea were measured for more than a year and analyzed. Mean temperature decreased with depth in spring and summer. On the contrary, it increased with depth in fall and winter, faithfully reflecting the seasonal variation resulting from the heating and cooling of the surface sediment. The surface sediment temperatures are shown to be strongly dependent on solar radiation, M2, and M4 tidal components. They are also weakly affected by precipitation. Thermal diffusivity of sediment is estimated at each depth and in each of the four seasons by applying the amplitude equation method. In Geunso Bay, the estimated seasonal-mean values decreased with depth, while they showed little change in Seonyu Island. Depth-averaged thermal diffusivity in Geunso Bay (1.94 × 10-7 m2/s) was smaller than Seonyu Island (2.20 × 10-7m2/s). The variability of thermal diffusivity is shown to corelate with sediment composition and sorting from the grain-size analysis of intertidal sediments in Geunso Bay and Seonyu-do.

Park J.,Pusan National University | Khim B.-K.,Pusan National University | Lee H.J.,Marine Environments and Conservation Research Division | Lee S.R.,Pusan National University
Ocean and Polar Research | Year: 2014

Recently, more attention has been paid to the geomorphological changes in the Nakdong River Estuary, because those changes are caused by artificial activities including weirs, reclamation and construction. In order to analyze quantitatively the recent geomorphological variability in the Nakdong River Estuary, we surveyed the depth and elevation of submarine topography near Jinwoodo and Sinjado from March 2007 to February 2012. A statistical method (based on Digital Shoreline Analysis System) and an Empirical Orthogonal Functions method were used to evaluate the morphological changes. According to the statistical variables (DCE, NDC, EPR, LRR), the highest amount and rate of accumulation were recorded around the Gadeokdo whereas the greatest amount of erosion appeared around the coast off the eastern part of Sinjado. In particular, a dynamic variation of morphology was clearly observed in the vicinity of the sub-tidal channel located between Jinwoodo and Sinjado, which seems to be attributable to channel migration. As a result of the EOF method, the first mode (48.7%) is most closely related to the pattern of morphological variability that might be associated with the westerly movement of sediment by longshore current. The spatial variability of the second mode (16.6%) was high in the shoreface of Sinjado, showing a 4-year periodicity of temporal variability. The strong correlation (coefficient 0.73) between the time coefficient and suspended sediment discharge from Nakdong River emphasizes the role of sediment discharge to deposition in this area. The spatial variability of the third mode (11.3%) was distributed mainly around the coast off the eastern part of Sinjado, which is related to the movement of the coastline of Sinjado. Based on the last 5 year's data, our results suggest that the study area is characterized on the whole by a depositional pattern, but the extent of sedimentation is different locally.

Kang J.,Marine Environments and Conservation Research Division | Choi M.-S.,Chungnam National University | Jeong K.-S.,Marine Environments and Conservation Research Division | Lee C.-B.,Seoul National University
Ocean Science Journal | Year: 2014

Total dissolvable metals (Co, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Pb) in both surface waters and the water columns were acquired in the southern East/Japan Sea during a cruise around the Ulleung Basin in June 2001 to understand the spatial distributions of the metals. Concentrations in offshore surface waters were found to be Co 60 ± 12 pM, Ni 2.16 ± 0.25 nM, Cu 1.85 ± 0.55 nM, Cd 0.134 ± 0.018 nM, and Pb 155 ± 40 pM. Spatial distributions in surface waters showed that metal levels were generally enhanced at coastal sites in both Korea and Japan, where the metal distributions indicated complex patterns due to inputs, biogeochemical processes, and physical factors including upwelling. The Co distributions in the water columns seemed to be influenced predominantly by surface and bottom inputs, scavenged rather than regenerated at depth. For Cd, there was generally good agreement between the Cd and PO4 depth distributions, in agreement with the literature. The Cd/PO4 ratio from the water columns was found to be 0.133-0.203, lower than that in other marginal seas (e.g. the East/South China Seas and the Philippine Sea) of the western Pacific Ocean; this might be a result of the fast ventilation rate in this sea. The vertical Pb profile showed typical scavenged-type behavior with a surface maximum and deep minimum. From a comparison of inputs from the atmosphere and the Tsushima Warm Current, atmospheric deposition is substantial enough that it cannot be ignored, and its role in metal cycling is more significant in the offshore zone. © 2014 Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute (KORDI) and the Korean Society of Oceanography (KSO) and Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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