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Eom S.-H.,Pukyong National University | Lee D.-S.,Korea Institute of Science and Technology | Kang Y.M.,Marine Bioprocess Co. | Son K.-T.,South Korean National Fisheries Research and Development Institute | And 2 more authors.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2013

In this study, fermentation broth of Eisenia bicyclis with Candia utilis YM-1 exhibited enhanced antimicrobial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and food-borne pathogenic bacteria. To perform a more detailed investigation on the antibacterial activity, the fermented broth of E. bicyclis was extracted with methanol and further fractionated with organic solvents. After 1-day fermentation, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-soluble extract exhibited the highest anti-MRSA activity with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 128 to 512 μg/mL, suggesting that the fermentation of E. bicyclis with C. utilis YM-1 may enhance antibacterial activity against MRSA. This effect was correlated to the result obtained by an increase in total phenolic contents in EtOAc-soluble extract. In addition, high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that eckol, dieckol, dioxinodehydroeckol, and phlorofucofuroeckol-A contents in the EtOAc-soluble extract increased significantly. Thus, these results show that anti-MRSA activity of E. bicyclis fermented with C. utilis most likely originated from phlorotannins and allow the possible application of a variety of seaweed functional foods. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Eom S.-H.,Pukyong National University | Kang Y.-M.,Marine Bioprocess Co. | Park J.-H.,Pukyong National University | Yu D.-U.,Pukyong National University | And 3 more authors.
Fisheries and Aquatic Science | Year: 2011

The objective of this study was to select an effective microbial strain to improve the functional qualities of Eisenia bicyclis water extract by fermentation. For this purpose, several microorganisms isolated from traditional Korean fermented foods were inoculated and cultivated in E. bicyclis water extract. Ultimately, yeast strain YM-1 was selected for further study based on its total phenolic compound (TP) content and antioxidant activity, which were enhanced by microbial fermentation. The extract fermented by YM-1 exhibited a superior TP content and 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity compared to extracts fermented by other microbes. The highest TP content and DPPH radical scavenging activity were observed after one day of YM-1 fermentation. Yeast strain YM-1 was identified as Candida utilis based on an analysis of its physiological characteristics. During fermentation of the extract by C. utilis YM-1, no significant difference was observed in the proximate composition, including moisture, crude lipid, crude protein, and crude ash. Fermentation by C. utilis YM-1 resulted in enhanced biological activity, including increases in the TP content and antioxidant activity. Thus, fermentation by C. utilis YM-1 is an attractive strategy for developing value-added food ingredients. © The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Science.

Cha J.-Y.,Daesun Distilling Co. | Jeong J.-J.,Daesun Distilling Co. | Yang H.-J.,Daesun Distilling Co. | Lee B.-J.,Marine Bioprocess Co. | Cho Y.-S.,Dong - A University
Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

Sea tangle, a kind of brown seaweed, was fermented with Lactobacillus brevis BJ-20. The gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in fermented sea tangle (FST) was 5.56% (w/w) and GABA in total free amino acid of FST was 49.5%. The effect of FST on the enzyme activities and mRNA protein expression of alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) involved in alcohol metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. Yeast was cultured in YPD medium supplemented with different concentrations of FST powder [0, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.0% (w/v)] for 18 h. FST had no cytotoxic effect on the yeast growth. The highest activities and protein expressions of ADH and ALDH from the cell-free extracts of S. cerevisiae were evident with the 0.4% and 0.8% (w/v) FST-supplemented concentrations, respectively. The highest concentrations of GABA as well as minerals (Zn, Ca, and Mg) were found in the cell-free extracts of S. cerevisiae cultured in medium supplemented with 0.4% (w/v) FST. The levels of GABA, Zn, Ca, and Mg in S. cerevisiae were strongly correlated with the enzyme activities of ADH and ALDH in yeast. These results indicate that FST can enhance the enzyme activities and protein expression of ADH and ALDH in S. cerevisiae.

Kang Y.-M.,Marine Bioprocess Co. | Eom S.-H.,Pukyong National University | Kim Y.-M.,Pukyong National University
Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology | Year: 2013

In this study, four bioactive phloroglucinol derivates including phloroglucinol (1), eckol (2), dioxinodehydroeckol (3), and dieckol (4) were isolated from Eisenia bicyclis and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic methods. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of these compounds was investigated on human hepatoma cell line HepG2 cells stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). It was demonstrated that LPS can induce the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) as well as the expression of inflammatory mediators as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), and inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) from HepG2 cells. Among isolated compounds, compound (1) exhibited significant inhibition on LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in HepG2 cells without any cytotoxicity. Herein, compound (1) suppresses the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and the expression of COX-2 and iNOS. Thus, these results indicated that phlorotannins isolated from E. bicyclis, especially compound (1), can be used as a beneficial source for preventing and treating inflammation response. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Choi W.-C.,Kyungsung University | Reid S.N.S.,Kyungsung University | Ryu J.-K.,Seoul National University | Kim Y.,Marine Bioprocess Co. | And 2 more authors.
Algae | Year: 2016

This study evaluated the effects of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-enriched fermented sea tangle (GFST), as a functional food, on brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related muscle growth and lipolysis, in a sarcopenic obesity highrisk group. Twenty-one middle-aged women (53-63 y) participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study. Participants ingested either 1,000 mg of GFST (n = 10) or a sucrose placebo (CON) (n = 11) everyday, for 8 weeks. Subjects were asked to abstain from any regular exercise. Fasting venous blood samples, body composition and muscular strength were measured before and after supplementation period. Collectively, we demonstrated that GFST significantly decreased total fat mass and triglyceride in body composition, as well as significantly increasing serum BDNF (p < 0.001), angiotensin converting enzyme (p < 0.001), human growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 levels (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively) accompanied by increased total lean mass (p < 0.01). Furthermore, the reported improvements in total work, knee extension and flexion at 60° s -1 (p < 0.05), and peak torque normalized to body weight of knee flexion at 60° s -1 (p < 0.05), support an ergogenic effect of GABA associated with increased growth factor levels. The use of GFST, as a functional food ingredient, to elicit anti-obesity effects and stimulate the release of muscle-related growth factors with increasing serum BDNF levels may provide a protective intervention for age-related degeneration such as sarcopenic obesity. © 2016 The Korean Society of Phycology.

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