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Ji Y.,Xiamen University | Ji Y.,Qingdao Technical College | Xu Z.,Marine Biology Institute of Shandong Province | Zou D.,South China University of Technology | Gao K.,Xiamen University
Journal of Applied Phycology | Year: 2016

Marine macroalgae are ecologically and economically important primary producers, being adjacent to human living areas and playing key roles in coastal carbon cycles. They are subject to both regional and global environmental changes in coastal waters, where environmental factors fluctuate dramatically due to high biological production and land runoff. Since global ocean changes can influence coastal environments, global warming-induced ocean warming, ocean acidification (OA) caused by atmospheric CO2 rise and increasing ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiance at the earth’s surface are affecting physiology, life cycles, and community structures of macroalgae. Here, we examine recent progress towards understanding the effects of these climate change factors on ecophysiology of macroalgae. Some species tested show enhanced growth and/or photosynthesis under elevated CO2 levels or ocean acidification conditions, possibly due to increased availability of CO2 in seawater with neglected influence of pH drop. Nevertheless, OA can harm some macroalgae due to their high sensitivity to the acidic perturbation to intracellular acid–base stability. Mild ocean warming has been shown to benefit most macroalgae examined. Respiration quotient increased due to combined effects of ocean warming and acidification. UVB almost always harms the physiological functions of macroalgae, which develop protective strategies, such as accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds; UVA can drive photosynthesis under moderate levels of solar radiation or when solely exposed to it. However, little has been documented on the interactions of these multiple stressors. Future work requires further investigations to examine the effects of OA under complex environments or under multiple stressors to advance knowledge on macroalgal global change biology. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht


Liu G.,Marine Biology Institute of Shandong Province | Sun J.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Liu S.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology
Developments in Aquaculture and Fisheries Science | Year: 2015

In China, Apostichopus japonicus has a long history of consumption, owing mainly to the health benefits and medicinal properties attributed to sea cucumber. The traditional dive-fishing method for A. japonicus is still being used in China today. With the socioeconomic boom in the 1990s, the market demand for sea cucumber increased considerably and led to the sharp decline of natural resources. Consequently, A. japonicus aquaculture emerged and became the most important source of A. japonicus on the market. With increasing wealth and consumer demand in China, A. japonicus aquaculture is expected to expand in years to come, despite limiting factors, such as diseases, environmental deterioration, and space constraints. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao Tongyong Aquaculture Ltd Company, Marine Biology Institute of Shandong Province and CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2016

The present study established and confirmed an efficient technology for groupers: giant grouper Epinephelus lanceolatus, orange-spotted grouper E. coioides, seven-band grouper, E. septemfasciatus, and kelp grouper E. moara sperm cryopreservation and successfully applied the cryopreserved E. lanceolatus sperm into interspecific hybridization with E. coioides. For both E. lanceolatus and E. coioides, the best motility of postthaw sperm were achieved using 6% to 10% DMSO, 6% to 16% propylene glycol, and 6% ethylene glycol as cryoprotectants. Furthermore, we have successfully applied this method into the other two species of E. septemfasciatus (74.565.45%) and E. moara (71.675.10%) sperm cryopreservation and obtained high motility, respectively. Computer-assisted sperm motion analysis showed that the postthaw sperm of the four species of grouper could keep 30 to 35minutes motile state in nature seawater. And the freezing-thawing process decreased the sperm motility, speed, and longevity but did not significantly change the sperm movement pattern, and the progressive linear motion still was the dominant movement pattern. For the four species of grouper, the ultrastructural analysis showed 70% to 80% of the spermatozoa had intact morphology with a little of swelling; 20% to 30% were damaged, such as swelling or rupture of head, midpiece, and tail region; and 10% to 20% were severely damaged. Whereas, by the microscopic observation, more than 90% of the postthaw sperm presented normal morphology. In the artificial insemination and hybridization experiment, high fertilization rates and hatching rates were achieved when using 10% DMSO (88.75.3%, 85.37.4%) and 10% propylene glycol (86.83.3%, 83.16.6%), with no significant difference in comparison with control (92.21.4%, 87.94.2%). In addition, we found the embryos from postthaw sperm of E. lanceolatus and E. coioides eggs developed and grew normally as reported in previous study on hybridization of groupers (E. coioidesE. lanceolatus) using cryopreserved sperm. The results of the present study further validated the safety of the cryopreserved sperm in breeding production by assessing the fertilization capacity, embryo development, and larval growth.


Tian J.,South China University of Technology | Wang Y.,Henan Institute of Science and Technology | Zhu Z.,South China University of Technology | Zeng Q.,South China University of Technology | Xin M.,Marine Biology Institute of Shandong Province
Food and Bioprocess Technology | Year: 2015

High-intensity ultrasound (HIU), which is regarded as “green” technology, was combined with an alkaline pH-shift process to extract tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) protein isolate (TPI) at various pH conditions. The results showed that HIU significantly decreased the consistency of alkaline muscle homogenate, especially at less extreme pH (pH 10.5), increased the protein solubility, and reduced the sediment ratio. Alkaline volume needed for pH adjustment to the same pH level was slightly increased by HIU, indicating that HIU accelerated the charging of myofibril protein particles and strengthened the electrostatic repulsion forces. Aided by two HIUs, the protein recovery at pH 10.5 was increased from 47.0 to 62.6 %, which was equivalent to that (62.4 %) at pH 11.5 without HIU, suggesting that ~40 % alkaline and corresponding acid in the process could be saved. SDS-PAGE images reveal that HIU induced partial degradation of titin and disassociation of nebulin with thin filament in sarcomere, which possibly facilitated the dispersion and solubilization of myofibril proteins. Those results of ATPase activity loss and surface hydrophobicity increase indicated that HIU also affected the conformation of the dissolved myofibril protein in muscle homogenate. TPI gel strength was elevated when the alkaline pH-shift process was aided by HIU. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Wang L.,Nanjing University | Wang X.,Marine Biology Institute of Shandong Province | Wu H.,Nanjing University | Liu R.,Nanjing University
Marine Drugs | Year: 2014

Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI.


Zhang Q.,Ocean University of China | Liu J.,Marine Biology Institute of Shandong Province | Zhang P.-D.,Ocean University of China | Liu Y.-S.,Ocean University of China | Xu Q.,Ocean University of China
Aquatic Botany | Year: 2015

This study tested the responses of eelgrass Zostera marina transplants to changes in the silt and clay content of sediments. A transplantation experiment using the staple method was conducted in Swan Lake on the eastern coast of Shandong Peninsula, China. We subjected Z. marina to different weight percentages of silt and clay in sediments (0%, 25%, 38%, 50%, 75%, and 100%) for 120 days and then measured plant response in terms of survivorship, growth rate, individual shoot weight and productivity. Natural sediments (38% silt and clay content) from the experimental site were used as reference sediment. The survival rate of Z. marina transplants was 100%. Aboveground absolute growth rate, shoot weight, and productivity of Z. marina transplants grown on different sediment types varied significantly with maximum values recorded at 75% silt and clay content and the minimum value in reference sediment. However, the rhizome elongation rate was not significantly affected by the silt and clay content of the sediment. The results indicated that sediments with high silt and clay content could promote successful eelgrass transplantation. However, no negative responses were found on sediments with low silt and clay content. The sediment with 75% silt and clay content may be the most suitable for the growth and establishment of Z. marina transplants. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Ocean University of China and Marine Biology Institute of Shandong Province
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of environmental sciences (China) | Year: 2014

Perinereis aibuhitensis was used to assess adverse biological effects caused by acute and chronic Pb exposure in artificial seawater under controlled laboratory conditions. In 96-hr acute toxicity experiments, the morphological changes showed a positive time/dose-dependent tendency, and the 96-hr LC value of Pb was 686.41 mg/L. The responses of enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in tissues including catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), malondialdehyde (MDA) and the content of total soluble protein (TSP), were investigated on days 1, 4, 7 and 10 after Pb exposure under chronic toxicity testing. Results showed that the activation of the antioxidant system in P. aibuhitensis depended on the Pb concentration and the duration of exposure time. Specifically, POD and SOD activities were induced on the first day of the exposure and decreased to the control level on day 10 after exposure. Therefore, these two indexes could be used to indicate oxidative stress associated with P. aibuhitensis exposure to Pb.


PubMed | Nanjing University and Marine Biology Institute of Shandong Province
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Marine drugs | Year: 2014

Among the three main divisions of marine macroalgae (Chlorophyta, Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta), marine green algae are valuable sources of structurally diverse bioactive compounds and remain largely unexploited in nutraceutical and pharmaceutical areas. Recently, a great deal of interest has been developed to isolate novel sulfated polysaccharides (SPs) from marine green algae because of their numerous health beneficial effects. Green seaweeds are known to synthesize large quantities of SPs and are well established sources of these particularly interesting molecules such as ulvans from Ulva and Enteromorpha, sulfated rhamnans from Monostroma, sulfated arabinogalactans from Codium, sulfated galacotans from Caulerpa, and some special sulfated mannans from different species. These SPs exhibit many beneficial biological activities such as anticoagulant, antiviral, antioxidative, antitumor, immunomodulating, antihyperlipidemic and antihepatotoxic activities. Therefore, marine algae derived SPs have great potential for further development as healthy food and medical products. The present review focuses on SPs derived from marine green algae and presents an overview of the recent progress of determinations of their structural types and biological activities, especially their potential health benefits.


PubMed | Ocean University of China and Marine Biology Institute of Shandong Province
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Marine pollution bulletin | Year: 2015

We describe an innovative method of planting Zostera marina (eelgrass) seeds in which hessian bags filled with high-silted sediments are used as a seed protecting device. Here, we evaluated the effectiveness of the method through a field seed-sowing experiment over a three year period. The suitable seed planting density required by the seeds of Z. marina in this method was also investigated. In the spring following seed distribution, seedling establishment rate of Z. marina subjected to different seed densities of 200-500seedsbag(-1) ranged from 16% to 26%. New eelgrass patches from seed were fully developed and well maintained after 2-3years following distribution. The seed planting density of 400seedsbag(-1) may be the most suitable for the establishment of new eelgrass patches. Our results demonstrate that seed-based restoration can be an effective restoration tool and the technique presented should be considered for future large-scale Z. marina restoration projects.


PubMed | Marine Biology Institute of Shandong Province
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genetics and molecular research : GMR | Year: 2016

Perinereis aibuhitensis is a commercially and ecologically important intertidal worm. In this study, eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were isolated in this species for the first time, and a wild population was used to estimate the properties of these loci. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 20, and the observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.375 to 0.875 and from 0.590 to 0.946, respectively. These microsatellite loci will act as effective markers for related P. aibuhitensis studies, and the data will be helpful for the rational exploitation and conservation of this species.

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