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Son K.-T.,South Korean National Fisheries Research and Development Institute | Lach T.,Pukyong National University | Jung Y.,Pukyong National University | Kang S.-K.,Pukyong National University | And 4 more authors.
Fisheries and Aquatic Science | Year: 2014

This study was performed to identify and assess food hazards during dry laver processing. Samples including raw materials, intermediates, and finished products during dried-laver processing were collected from seven dried-laver processing facilities, and microbial analyses were conducted. Microbial levels such as total coliforms and total viable cell count (TVC) increased as the processing steps progressed. TVC and total coliforms ranged from <30 to 9.1 × 107 CFU/g and <18 to 27,600 MPN/100 g for intermediates and finished products obtained during dried-laver processing, respectively. However, no fecal coliform was detected in the samples. Additionally, food-borne bacteria including Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella sp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Vibrio parahaemolyticus were not identified in finished products. For heavy metal content, arsenic ranged from 30.18 to 39.05 mg/kg, mercury from 0.005 to 0.009 mg/kg, and cadmium from 0.076 to 0.318 mg/kg dry mass in all finished products. However, lead was not detected in samples tested in this study. In conclusion, dried-laver products were safe based on the levels of food-borne bacteria and heavy metal contents. However, it is important to reduce total viable cell counts and total coliforms during dried-laver processing. © 2014 The Korean Society of Fisheries and Aquatic Science. Source

Paeng S.H.,Inje University | Jung W.-K.,Pukyong National University | Park W.S.,Kangwon National University | Lee D.-S.,Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2015

Choroidal neovascularization (CNV) can lead to progressive and severe visual loss. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) promotes the development of CNV. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a biologically active component of the honeybee (Apis mellifera) propolis, has been demonstrated to have several interesting biological regulatory properties. The objective of this study was to determine whether treatment with CAPE results in the inhibition of the production of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE cells) under hypoxic conditions and to explore the possible underlying mechanisms. An in vitro experimental model of hypoxia was used to mimic an ischemic microenvironment for the RPE cells. Human RPE cells (ARPE-19) were exposed to hypoxia with or without CAPE pre-treatment. ARPE-19 cells were used to investigate the pathway involved in the regulation of VEGF production under hypoxic conditions, based on western blot analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The amount of VEGF released from the hypoxia-exposed cells was significantly higher than that of the normoxic controls. Pre-treatment with CAPE suppressed the hypoxia-induced production of VEGF in the ARPE-19 cells, and this effect was inhibited through the attenuation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and the inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression. These in vitro fndings suggest that CAPE may prove to be a novel anti-angiogenic agent for the treatment of diseases associated with CNV. Source

Hwa Paeng S.,Inje University | Park W.S.,Kangwon National University | Jung W.-K.,Pukyong National University | Lee D.-S.,Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Medicine | Year: 2015

YCG063 is known as an inhibitor of reactive oxygen species (ROS); however, its intracellular mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effects of YCG063 on the inflammatory response of Pseudomonas aeruginosa lipopolysaccharide (PA-LPS)-stimulated human retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE cells). Human adult RPE cells (ARPE-19) were stimulated with PA-LPS. We then investigated the LPS-induced expression of several inflammatory mediators, such as interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the ARPE-19 cells. We performed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), western blot analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of YCG063 in the PA-LPS-stimulated cells. The results revealed that treatment with YCG063 significantly inhibited the levels of IL-6, IL-8, MCP-1 and ICAM-1 in the PA-LPS-stimulated ARPE-19 cells. YCG063 also markedly inhibited the phosphorylation of AKT in the PA-LPS-stimulated cells. In addition, the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) was also attenuated folllowing treatment with YCG063. ROS were not generated in the PA-LPS-stimulated cells. In conclusion, our data indicate that YCG063 may prove to be a potential protective agent against inflammation, possibly through the downregulation of Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and the AKT-dependent NF-κB activation pathway in PA-LPS-stimulated ARPE-19 cells. Furthermore, this anti-inflammatory activity occurred through ROS-independent signaling pathways. Source

Back J.,Hanyang University | Lee W.,Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

A study of harpacticoid copepods from the intertidal zone of Jeju Island in the South Sea of Korea resulted in the discovery of two new paramesochrid species. They are placed in the genus Apodopsyllus Huys, 2009 on account of the following combination of characters: the absence of P2-P4 endopods, the poorly defined body segmentation, the two-segmented P1 endopod and exopod, and the fusion of the P2-P4 coxae with the respective body somites. Apodopsyllus gwakjiensis sp. nov. is most closely related to A. bermudensis (Coull & Hogue, 1978), but clearly distinguishable from it by the following characters: the concave shape of the baseoendopod with two bare setae, P4 basis without endopodal seta, and certain detailed characteristics of the mouthparts. Apodopsyllus unisetosus sp. nov. is easily distinguished from its congeners by the antennary exopod, which is armed with a single apical seta. In addition, A. unisetosus has the baseoendopod of P5 fused with somite, the P1 armed with one inner and one outer basal seta, and the unique shape of the male P6. Keys to genera of the family Paramesochridae Lang, 1944, as well as to species of the genus Apodopsyllus Huys, 2009 are provided. Copyright © 2012 Magnolia Press. Source

Back J.,Marine Biodiversity Institute of Korea | Lee W.,Hanyang University
ZooKeys | Year: 2014

A survey on the harpacticoid copepods from an intertidal zone in Hyeopjae sandy beach, Jeju Island, Korea, resulted in the discovery of an unusual laophontid, Jejulaophonte hyeopjaeensis sp. n., which cannot be placed in any extant genus within the family. To accommodate the species, a new genus of the family Laophontidae T. Scott, 1905 is proposed and fully described here. The new species is closely related to the lineage of the five primitive genera, Carraroenia McCormack, 2006, Coullia Hamond, 1973, Hemilaophonte Jakubisiak 1933, Psammoplatypus Lee & Huys, 1999, and Robustunguis Fiers, 1992 (the CCHPR-lineage) by the reduced P2 endopod, ovate shape of the female P5 exopod and sexual dimorphism in the P3 endopod. However, it displays discrepancies from the species of the CCHPR-lineage in the presence of an inner seta on P3 and P4 exp-2, four setae on P4 enp-2, and an inner seta on P3 and P4 enp-2 in the female. Furthermore, no other species within the family Laophontidae has three setae on P2 exp-3 and a seta on P2 enp-2 at the same time. The new species has sexual dimorphism in the antennule, genital segmentation and the legs from P2 to P5. The terminal seta on the second endopodal segment of P2 in the male is longer than that in the female. The endopod of P3 is 3-segmented and displays a short inner apophysis on the second segment in the male. The outer setae on the exopod of P3 and P4 are distinctly thicker and stronger in the male than in the female. Mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (mt-COI) sequencing of the new species has been realized in order to be used in future phylogenetic analysis. © 2014, Jinwook Back, Wonchoel Lee. Source

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