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Hauville M.R.,University of Stirling | Hauville M.R.,Marine and Freshwater Aquaculture Research Program | Rhody N.R.,Marine and Freshwater Aquaculture Research Program | Resley M.J.,Marine and Freshwater Aquaculture Research Program | And 3 more authors.
Aquaculture | Year: 2015

In this study, the lipid composition of wild and captive common snook broodstock was investigated to identify potential nutritional deficiencies and formulate suitable diets for captive stocks. Results showed that captive snook incorporated significantly more lipid than their wild counterparts. However, cholesterol and arachidonic acid (ARA) levels were significantly lower compared to wild fish, which may impact steroid and prostaglandin production, reproductive behavior and gametogenesis. In eggs obtained from captive broodstock, high docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) levels, associated with low ARA contents were found. As a result, ARA/EPA ratio in captive eggs was less than half of that in wild eggs with the potential for negative consequences on embryo and larval development. In conclusion, large differences were noticed between wild and captive broodstock that may contribute to the reproductive dysfunctions observed in captive snook broodstock (e.g. incomplete oocyte maturation, low milt production and highly variable egg and larval quality). The wild snook survey also identified the presence of hydrocarbons in the liver, which should be further studied to identify a potential impact on the reproductive performances of a vulnerable population like common snook. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

Merz C.R.,University of South Florida | Main K.L.,Marine and Freshwater Aquaculture Research Program
2014 Oceans - St. John's, OCEANS 2014 | Year: 2015

As fishing has become more industrialized and wild fish stocks increasingly depleted, aquaculture production has grown rapidly to address the shortfalls in capture fisheries and limitations to long-term aquaculture success. One such shortfall is the need to produce a suitable, sustainable, substitute for the capture fishery derived fish meal and oil based fish feeds currently in use, while maintaining the human protein requirements and health benefits of Long Chain (LC) omega-3 oils in farmed fish products. Fish derive the LC omega-3 oils from the food they consume, which ultimately comes from lower trophic level primary producers like microalgae. Using Integrated Aquaculture System (IAS) principles and practices, microalgae (diatoms) can be raised and processed directly for their Algal/Single Cell Oils (SCO), protein, and nutrients. Besides the use as an aquaculture feedstock, microalgae have been investigated for biofuel production because of higher photosynthetic efficiency, higher biomass production, and faster growth compared to other terrestrial energy crops. SCO based carbon-neutral renewable liquid biofuel solutions are currently under investigation but suffer from high production costs. Liquid biofuels have been considered to displace non-renewable, petroleum-derived transport fuels of limited availability which contribute to climate change via greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The current high cost constraint of SCO production could be alleviated through explored water-energy-food nexus synergies between the aquaculture and biofuels sector with a concentration on innovations in microalgae/SCO production, harvesting, and processing technologies. Interdisciplinary collaborations between engineers, biologists and chemists are essential for their successful development. © 2014 IEEE.

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