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Whitfield A.K.,South African Institute For Aquatic Biodiversity | Bate G.C.,Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University | Forbes T.,Marine and Estuarine Research | Forbes T.,University of KwaZulu - Natal | And 2 more authors.
Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management | Year: 2013

The St. Lucia Estuary was separated from the Mfolozi River in the early 1950s following canalisation of the Mfolozi floodplain swamp that resulted in the deposition of large amounts of sediment in the estuary. A separate Mfolozi River mouth has been maintained artificially since then and the deleterious consequences in terms of freshwater supply to the St. Lucia system are now becoming fully apparent, especially following the latest drought. Fish and penaeid prawn stocks in Lake St. Lucia have collapsed and the loss of this major southern African estuarine nursery area for these faunal components has had a significant impact on fish and prawn catches in adjacent coastal waters. It is therefore imperative that a re-linkage of the Mfolozi River to the St. Lucia system occurs so that the health and conservation status of the St. Lucia ecosystem, which is a Ramsar and World Heritage Site, can be assured. This review of the major findings presented at a recent scientific workshop explores the need for, and consequences of, a reconnection between the Mfolozi River and St. Lucia Estuary and makes some preliminary suggestions towards the achievement of that goal. Foremost amongst these proposals is to use the subsiding Mfolozi floodplain as a sink for excess sediment carried by the Mfolozi River before it enters the St. Lucia system, as well as various strategies in terms of reconnection options. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Van Niekerk L.,South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research | Van Niekerk L.,Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University | Adams J.B.,Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University | Bate G.C.,Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University | And 10 more authors.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2013

Population and development pressures increase the need for proactive strategic management on a regional or country-wide scale - reactively protecting ecosystems on an estuary-by-estuary basis against multiple pressures is 'resource hungry' and not feasible. Proactive management requires a strategic assessment of health so that the most suitable return on investment can be made. A country-wide assessment of the nearly 300 functional South African estuaries examined both key pressures (freshwater inflow modification, water quality, artificial breaching of temporarily open/closed systems, habitat modification and exploitation of living resources) and health state. The method used to assess the type and level of the different pressures, as well as the ecological health status of a large number of estuaries in a data limited environment is described in this paper. Key pressures and the ecological condition of estuaries on a national scale are summarised. The template may also be used to provide guidance to coastal researchers attempting to inform management in other developing countries. The assessment was primarily aimed at decision makers both inside and outside the biodiversity sector. A key starting point was to delineate spatially the estuary functional zone (area) for every system. In addition, available data on pressures impacting estuaries on a national scale were collated. A desktop national health assessment, based on an Estuarine Health Index developed for South African ecological water requirement studies, was then applied systematically. National experts, all familiar with the index evaluated the estuaries in their region. Individual estuarine health assessment scores were then translated into health categories that reflect the overall status of South Africa's estuaries. The results showed that estuaries in the warm-temperate biogeographical zone are healthier than those in the cool-temperate and subtropical zones, largely reflecting the country's demographics and developmental pressures. A major finding was that, while a large number of South Africa's estuaries are still in an excellent to good condition, they tend to represent very small systems (<150ha in size) in rural areas with few pressures. Larger systems, which are more important as nursery grounds because of their size, and also of higher economic and ecological importance, are in a fair to poor condition. This was due to pressures within the catchments influencing these downstream systems, and degradation as a result of direct development within the estuary functional zone. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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