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Wallwiener C.W.,University of Tübingen | Wallwiener M.,National Center for Cancer Diseases | Kurth R.R.,University of Tübingen | Rohm C.,University of Tübingen | And 7 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2011

The potential advantage of using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) methodology to detect metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) of breast cancer (BC) patients was evaluated in this prospective study. We measured the expression of relevant gene transcripts in SLNs using an innovative algorithm and compared the results of single-marker assays versus multi-marker assays with conventional histological detection methods. SLNs from women aged ≥18 years diagnosed with unilateral BC were examined by haematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistochemistry and analysed for transcripts of several relevant genes using qRT-PCR (learning group). Four candidate panels of expressed transcript combinations with high sensitivity and specificity were selected for further investigation. The candidate panels were then validated using SLNs from a second group of BC patients (validation group). In the learning group, 74/314 SLN sections from 150 patients were positive for metastasis by histology. The transcripts analysed showed the following individual sensitivities/specificities: cytokeratin 19 (CK19) 94.6%/97.9%; mammaglobin 1 (MGB1) 82.4%/91.7%; mammaglobin 2 (MGB2) 82.4%/96.7%; carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) 71.6%/97.5%; EPCAM (epithelial cell adhesion molecule) 91.9%/97.1%; and NY-BR-1 82.4%/93.8%. The optimal panel based on the predefined criteria comprised four markers: CK19, MGB1, EPCAM, and NY-BR-1, of which ≥2 had to be positive (95.9% sensitivity, 95.0% specificity, 85.5% positive predictive value (PPV), and 98.7% negative predictive value (NPV)). Overall concordance with histology was 95.2%. In the validation group, 84/315 SLN sections from 235 patients were histologically positive, and panel sensitivity, specificity and overall accuracy were 88.1, 95.2 and 93.3%, respectively, at the SLN section level. In conclusion, molecular staging using expression patterns of relevant transcripts in SLNs could serve as a useful complement to standard diagnostic work-up in BC patients. The proposed flexible multi-parametric approach does not improve the overall accuracy compared with the single-marker approach. However, it overcomes several limitations of the previously reported molecular assays for SLN diagnosis. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Hartkopf A.D.,University of Tübingen | Banys M.,Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg | Meier-Stiegen F.,University of Tübingen | Hahn M.,University of Tübingen | And 9 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2013

Overexpression of the HER2-receptor in early breast cancer (EBC) patients is associated with aggressive tumor behavior. However, women suffering from HER2-positive EBC benefit from trastuzumab treatment. As the HER2 status of the primary tumor may differ from that of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in bone marrow (BM), the aim of this study was (1) to compare the HER2 status of the primary tumor (prim-HER2-status) with that of DTC (DTC-HER2-status) and (2) to analyze the influence of the DTC-HER2-status on patient survival. For this purpose, BM aspirates from 569 EBC patients were analyzed for the presence of DTC. The DTC-HER2-status was identified by a double-staining procedure against cytokeratin and the HER2-receptor. DTC were detected in 151 (27 %) patients. The concordance between the HER2 status of DTC and the primary tumor was 51 %. In patients with detectable DTC, mean disease-free survival was 77.44 (95 % CI 74.72-80.17) months for DTC-HER2-negative and 55.15 (95 % CI 48.57-61.79) months for DTC-HER2-positive patients (p = 0.044). The multivariate analysis showed that the DTC-HER2-status was an independent predictor of disease-free survival. In conclusion, the presence of HER2-positive DTC in EBC patients is associated with an increased risk of relapse. Due to the low concordance between the HER2 status of the primary tumor and DTC, only a minority (13 %) of the DTC-HER2-positive patients was treated with trastuzumab. These patients might, however, benefit from HER2-directed therapy. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf and University of Heidelberg
Type: Review | Journal: Geburtshilfe und Frauenheilkunde | Year: 2016

Conventional chemotherapy is generally administered in high doses followed by a treatment-free period to give the body needful time to recover. This maximum tolerated dose approach results in high response rates. However, long periods between therapy cycles can lead to development of resistance mechanisms and consequently disease progression. One of the most interesting alternative strategies is metronomic chemotherapy. This concept relies on the continuous administration of chemotherapy at low doses and aims at targeting endothelial cells in the tumor bed as well. Recently, metronomic chemotherapy has been incorporated into the recommendations issued by the German AGO expert panel (www.ago-online.de). A systematic review of PubMed/Medline, ClinicalTrials.gov, the European Clinical Trials Database (EudraCT) and the Cochrane Database was conducted. In the present review, we discuss the current evidence on metronomic chemotherapy in metastatic breast cancer.


Lupp A.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Nagel F.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Doll C.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Rocken C.,University of Kiel | And 4 more authors.
Neuroendocrinology | Year: 2012

Background: Among the five somatostatin receptors (sst1-sst 5), the sst3 receptor displays a distinct pharmacological profile. Like sst2, the sst3 receptor efficiently internalizes radiolabeled somatostatin analogs. Unlike sst2, however, internalized sst3 receptors are rapidly transferred to lysosomes for degradation. Apart from this, very little is known about the clinical relevance of the sst3 receptor, which may in part be due to the lack of specific monoclonal sst3 antibodies. Methods: Here, we have extensively characterized the novel rabbit monoclonal anti-human sst3 antibody UMB-5 using transfected cells and receptor-expressing tissues. UMB-5 was then subjected to immunohistochemical staining of a series of 190 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded normal and neoplastic human tissues. Results: Specificity of UMB-5 was demonstrated by detection of a broad band migrating at a molecular weight of 70,000-85,000 in immunoblots from human pituitary. After enzymatic deglycosylation, the size of this band decreased to a molecular weight of 45,000. Tissue immunostaining was completely abolished by pre-adsorption of UMB-5 with its immunizing peptide. In addition, UMB-5 detected distinct cell populations in human tissues like pancreatic islands, anterior pituitary, adrenal cortex, adrenal medulla, and enteric ganglia, similar to that seen with a rabbit polyclonal antibody generated against a different carboxyl-terminal epitope of the sst3 receptor. In a comparative immunohistochemical study, UMB-5 yielded predominant plasma membrane staining in the majority of pituitary adenomas, pheochromocytomas, and a subset of neuroendocrine tumors. The sst3 receptor was also present in many glioblastomas, pancreatic, breast, cervix, and ovarian carcinomas. Conclusion: The rabbit monoclonal antibody UMB-5 may prove of great value in the identification of sst 3-expressing tumors during routine histopathological examinations. Given its unique trafficking properties, these tumors may be potential candidates for sst3-directed receptor radiotherapy. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.


Trarbach T.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Przyborek M.,University of Duisburg - Essen | Schleucher N.,Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg | Heeger S.,Merck KGaA | And 2 more authors.
Investigational New Drugs | Year: 2013

Background To evaluate the safety and tolerability of two different weekly doses of the fully humanized epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeting monoclonal antibody matuzumab combined with high-dose 5-fluorouracil, leucovorin and cisplatin (PLF) in the first-line treatment of patients with EGFR-positive advanced gastric and esophagogastric adenocarcinomas. Methods Patients were treated in two matuzumab dose groups with the first cohort of patients receiving 400 mg matuzumab in combination with PLF. Based on the safety observations the next cohort of patients received 800 mg matuzumab. The study was conducted in two parts, with phase A, designed to assess the safety and tolerability of the combination, and phase B designed to be a treatment continuation for those patients benefiting from treatment. Treatment cycles were 7 weeks each. Each patient received the dose of matuzumab they were assigned to at study entry for the duration of the study. Results Fifteen EGFR-positive patients were enrolled into the two matuzumab dose groups; 400 mg dose n = 7; 800 mg dose n = 8. All patients experienced at least one adverse event (AE). No patient experienced any serious AE which was considered to be related to matuzumab. Two grade 3 AEs possibly related to matuzumab occurred in 2 different patients (13.3 %), both in the 800 mg dose group. No dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) was observed in the 400 mg group. The maximum tolerated dose of matuzumab was not reached. The best confirmed overall response rate was 26.7 %. Conclusion Matuzumab, in combination with PLF, demonstrated an acceptable safety profile with modest anti-tumor activity. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Banys M.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf | Solomayer E.-F.,Saarland University | Gebauer G.,Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg | Janni W.,University of Ulm | And 9 more authors.
BMC Cancer | Year: 2013

Background: The presence of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in bone marrow (BM) of breast cancer patients is associated with reduced clinical outcome. Bisphosphonate treatment was shown to eradicate DTC from BM in several studies. This controlled randomized open-label multi-center study aimed to investigate the influence of zoledronic acid (ZOL) on DTC and survival of breast cancer patients (Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT00172068).Methods: Patients with primary breast cancer and DTC-positive bone marrow were randomized to treatment with ZOL plus adjuvant systemic therapy (n = 40) or adjuvant systemic therapy alone (n = 46) between 03/2002 and 12/2004. DTC were identified by immunocytochemistry using the pancytokeratin antibody A45B/B3 and by cytomorphology. The change in DTC numbers at 12 months and 24 months versus baseline, as well as patient outcomes were evaluated.Results: 86 patients could be included into survival analysis (median follow-up: 88 months, range: 8-108 mths). Patients in the control group were more likely to die during follow-up than those in the ZOL-group (11% vs. 2%, p = 0.106). 15% of patients in the control group presented with relapse whereas only 8% of ZOL group patients developed metastatic or recurrent disease during follow-up (p = 0.205). At 24 months, 16% of patients from the control group were still DTC positive, whereas all patients treated with ZOL became DTC negative (p = 0.032). Patients presenting with persistent DTC 12 months after diagnosis had significantly shorter overall survival (p = 0.011).Conclusions: Bisphosphonate therapy contributes to eradication of disseminated tumor cells. The positive influence of bisphosphonates on survival in the adjuvant setting may be due to their effects on DTC. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00172068 [Zoledronic Acid in the Treatment of Breast Cancer With Minimal Residual Disease in the Bone Marrow (MRD-1)]. © 2013 Banys et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Schmid B.C.,Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg | Rezniczek G.A.,Ruhr University Bochum | Rolf N.,Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg | Saade G.,University of Texas Medical Branch | And 2 more authors.
American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology | Year: 2013

Objective To describe the use of gauze covered with chitosan, a potent hemostatic agent derived from chitin, in the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH). Study Design Patients suffering from postpartum hemorrhage were treated by uterine packing with chitosan-covered gauze, either through the hysterotomy in case of cesarean delivery or transvaginally, for up to 24 hours. Results Chitosan-covered gauze was used in 19 cases of postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony, placenta accreta/increta, or anticoagulation, including 5 severe cases where a hysterectomy seemed inevitable otherwise. In all but one case, the bleeding stopped and further interventions were avoided. Over comparable periods of time (18 months) and births (3822 vs 4077) before and after the introduction of the chitosan gauze in our clinic, the rate of peripartum hysterectomies was reduced by 75% (8 vs 2; odds ratio, 4.27; P =.044). Conclusion Chitosan-covered gauze is a viable option in the treatment of (severe) postpartum hemorrhage. It is easy to use and requires no special training. It can be used after both vaginal and cesarean deliveries, and there are no adverse side effects. Furthermore, it is very inexpensive compared with other treatment options, making it suitable for use also in low resource-countries, where the death toll due to postpartum hemorrhage is especially high. © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg and Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf
Type: | Journal: Frontiers in oncology | Year: 2016

The phenomenon of hematogenous tumor cell dissemination in patients with solid tumors has been extensively explored over the last decades. Breast cancer research investigated at first disseminated tumor cells in the bone marrow; however, the focus soon moved to circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the peripheral blood as blood is easily accessible without an invasive procedure. The prognostic significance of CTC presence has been shown in large studies both in adjuvant and metastatic setting and commercially available detection assays have been evaluated for monitoring in clinical trials. Beyond detection and enumeration of CTCs, the characterization of single tumor cells may enhance our knowledge on disease progression and thus optimize treatment choices.


Kraemer B.,University of Tübingen | Rothmund R.,University of Tübingen | Banys M.,Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg | Krawczyk N.,University of Tübingen | And 4 more authors.
Anticancer Research | Year: 2011

Background: Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in bone marrow (BM) occur in 30-40% of primary breast cancer patients. An impaired bone microenvironment may lead to reduced bone density and osteoporosis affecting the BM as a homing site for DTCs. The bone mineral density (BMD) and its correlation to DTC in BM was evaluated. Materials and Methods: One hundred and eighty-one women (70 premenopausal, 111 postmenopausal) underwent quantitative ultrasonometry before adjuvant chemotherapy. BM aspirates were analyzed by immunocytochemistry using the ACIS system (Chromavision) based on immunostaining. Results: DTCs were detected in 39% of the patients. Positive BM status correlated significantly with the nodal status. BMD was significantly reduced in the postmenopausal patients (p=0.003). Smaller tumors and higher BMD correlated significantly (p<0.014). Fifty percent of the patients with preclinical osteoporosis were BM positive, whereas 37% with normal or osteopenic BMD had DTCs. Conclusion: An impaired bone microenvironment as found in preclinical osteoporosis might be a homing site for DTCs.


PubMed | Marienkrankenhaus Hamburg
Type: Journal Article | Journal: American journal of obstetrics and gynecology | Year: 2013

To describe the use of gauze covered with chitosan, a potent hemostatic agent derived from chitin, in the treatment of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH).Patients suffering from postpartum hemorrhage were treated by uterine packing with chitosan-covered gauze, either through the hysterotomy in case of cesarean delivery or transvaginally, for up to 24 hours.Chitosan-covered gauze was used in 19 cases of postpartum hemorrhage due to uterine atony, placenta accreta/increta, or anticoagulation, including 5 severe cases where a hysterectomy seemed inevitable otherwise. In all but one case, the bleeding stopped and further interventions were avoided. Over comparable periods of time (18 months) and births (3822 vs 4077) before and after the introduction of the chitosan gauze in our clinic, the rate of peripartum hysterectomies was reduced by 75% (8 vs 2; odds ratio, 4.27; P = .044).Chitosan-covered gauze is a viable option in the treatment of (severe) postpartum hemorrhage. It is easy to use and requires no special training. It can be used after both vaginal and cesarean deliveries, and there are no adverse side effects. Furthermore, it is very inexpensive compared with other treatment options, making it suitable for use also in low resource-countries, where the death toll due to postpartum hemorrhage is especially high.

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