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Sarasota, FL, United States

Cao Z.,University of Florida | Deng Z.,University of Florida | McLaughlin M.,Marie Selby Botanical Gardens
Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2014

The genus Caladium Vent. is a member of the family Araceae; some of its species are cultivated as ornamentals. The present study was conducted to determine the genome size, somatic chromosome number, and their variation within 63 accessions representing 10 species of Caladium. Caladium genome sizes estimated using propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry ranged from 2.98 pg/2C in Caladium lindenii Engl. to 9.89 pg/2C in Caladium ×hortulanum Birdsey 'Chang Suek'. Two genome size groups (large and small) were evident among the 63 caladium accessions. The average genome size of 36 caladium accessions in the large genome size group was 9.29 pg/2C, roughly twice that of the 27 accessions in the small genome size group (4.50 pg/2C). Microscopic examination of squashed root tip cells revealed seven somatic chromosome numbers among 39 caladium accessions, including 2n = 18, 20, 24, 26, 30, 34, and 38, and provided the first chromosome counts for four caladium species new to Caladium. The results support the species status of C. marmoratum Mathieu ex K. Koch, C. picturatum K. Koch&C.D. Bouché, and C. steudneriifolium Engl. that were merged into C. bicolor (Aiton) Vent. previously and also support the species status of C. clavatum Hett., Bogner&J. Boos, and C. praetermissum Bogner & Hett., two species recently established in or transferred to Caladium. The results suggest that C. bicolor and C. schomburgkii Schott, not C. picturatum or C. marmoratum, are the chief parents of the fancy-leaved caladium (C. ×hortulanum). Four caladium cytotype groups (CCG-1 to -4) were identified in scatterplot of chromosome number vs. genome size. The genome size of C. bicolor, C. schomburgkii, and C. ×hortulanum in the CCG-4 is approximately twice that of C. humboldtii (Raf.) Schott and C. picturatum in the CCG-2, and the chromosome number of C. clavatum and C. marmoratum in the CCG-3 is close to twice that of C. humboldtii and C. picturatum in the CCG-2, both suggesting possible genome duplication or tetraploidization events in Caladium. However, the chromosome number of the CCG-4 species does not correspond to an expected 2n = 36 or 40, and the genome size of the CCG-3 species does not correspond to an expected 8.98 pg/2C. Conflicts between genome size and chromosome number indicate that genome duplication events were likely followed by chromosome fusions/losses in the formation of CCG-4 species and DNA losses likely followed tetraploidization in the formation of the CCG-3 species. The high level of cytological diversity found within Caladium affects germplasm collection and preservation efforts as well as breeding programs in the genus. Source

De Brito A.L.V.T.,Marie Selby Botanical Gardens | Luer C.A.,Missouri Botanical Garden
Harvard Papers in Botany | Year: 2015

One new species in the genus Acianthera, A. imitator, is described and illustrated. Sixteen species are proposed as synonyms. They are listed in alphabetical order: Acianthera gradeae as synonym of A. agathophylla; A. spilantha as synonym of A. breviflora; A. antennata as synonym of A. gracilisepala; A. dichroa as synomym of A. strupifolia; Anathallis crebrifolia, A. montipelladensis, and A. ourobranquensis as synonyms of A. aristulata; A. liparanges as a synomym of A. heterophylla; A. bolsanelloi, A. githaginea, and A. nectarifera as synonyms of A. lobiserrata; A. limbata and A. marginata as synonyms of A. muscoidea; A. longiglossa as synonym of A. paranaensis; Lankesteriana gehrtii as synonym of L. caudatipetala, and Specklinia rubidantha as synonym of Lankesteriana imberbis. Correct provenance and habitat information are provided for the type collection of the recently described Anathallis johnsonii. This species is herein formally recorded for Brazil. Lectotypes are selected for seven species: Anathallis heterophylla, A. nectarifera, Lepanthes crebrifolia, Pleurothallis gracilisepala, P. microgemma, P. paranaensis, and P. spilantha, and an epitype is selected for Pleurothallis paranaensis. Illustrations and taxonomic discussions are also provided. © President and Fellows of Harvard College, 2015. Source

McPherson G.,Missouri Botanical Garden | Holst B.K.,Marie Selby Botanical Gardens
Novon | Year: 2016

Conceveiba belizensis McPherson & B. Holst (Euphorbiaceae), a new species of Conceveiba Aubl., is described, differing notably from the similar C. guianensis Aubl. and C. rhytidocarpa Müll. Arg. in having staminate inflorescences unbranched (vs. paniculiform), staminate flowers with pedicels 4-9 mm long (vs. less than 2 mm) and staminodes much shorter than the stamens (vs. staminodes much longer than the stamens), and pistillate flowers sessile (vs. pedicels at least 2 mm long). Source

Toscano de Brito A.L.V.,Marie Selby Botanical Gardens | Luer C.A.,Missouri Botanical Garden
Lankesteriana | Year: 2015

Two new Brazilian species of the orchid genus Acianthera, Acianthera calopedilon and Acianthera cephalopodiglossa, are described and illustrated. The identities of Acianthera bidentula, Acianthera saundersiana, and Acianthera serpentula are discussed. Acianthera velteniana, recently described for Espírito Santo, is placed in the synonymy of Acianthera bidentula. An epitype is selected for Pleurothallis saundersiana and a lectotype for Pleurothallis serpentula. Updated synonymy lists are provided for the taxa treated in the article. © Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015. Source

Toscano De Brito A.L.V.,Marie Selby Botanical Gardens | Royer C.A.,Federal University of Parana | De Camargo Smidt E.,Federal University of Parana
Lankesteriana | Year: 2016

Phymatidium glaziovii is proposed as a new synonym for P. geiselii. A lectotype and an epitype are selected for P. geiselii. Illustrations and taxonomic discussions are also provided. © Universidad de Costa Rica, 2016. Source

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