Marie Selby Botanical Gardens

West Palm Beach, FL, United States

Marie Selby Botanical Gardens

West Palm Beach, FL, United States
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Givnish T.J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Barfuss M.H.J.,University of Vienna | van Ee B.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | van Ee B.,Harvard University | And 19 more authors.
American Journal of Botany | Year: 2011

Premise: Bromeliaceae form a large, ecologically diverse family of angiosperms native to the New World. We use a bromeliad phylogeny based on eight plastid regions to analyze relationships within the family, test a new, eight-subfamily classification, infer the chronology of bromeliad evolution and invasion of different regions, and provide the basis for future analyses of trait evolution and rates of diversification. Methods: We employed maximum-parsimony, maximum-likelihood, and Bayesian approaches to analyze 9341 aligned bases for four outgroups and 90 bromeliad species representing 46 of 58 described genera. We calibrate the resulting phylogeny against time using penalized likelihood applied to a monocot-wide tree based on plastid ndhF sequences and use it to analyze patterns of geographic spread using parsimony, Bayesian inference, and the program S-DIVA. Results: Bromeliad subfamilies are related to each other as follows: (Brocchinioideae, (Lindmanioideae, (Tillandsioideae, (Hechtioideae, (Navioideae, (Pitcairnioideae, (Puyoideae, Bromelioideae))))))). Bromeliads arose in the Guayana Shield ca. 100 million years ago (Ma), spread centrifugally in the New World beginning ca. 16-13 Ma, and dispersed to West Africa ca. 9.3 Ma. Modern lineages began to diverge from each other roughly 19 Ma. Conclusions: Nearly two-thirds of extant bromeliads belong to two large radiations: the core tillandsioids, originating in the Andes ca. 14.2 Ma, and the Brazilian Shield bromelioids, originating in the Serro do Mar and adjacent regions ca. 9.1 Ma. © 2011 Botanical Society of America.

De Brito A.L.V.T.,Marie Selby Botanical Gardens | Luer C.A.,Missouri Botanical Garden
Harvard Papers in Botany | Year: 2015

One new species in the genus Acianthera, A. imitator, is described and illustrated. Sixteen species are proposed as synonyms. They are listed in alphabetical order: Acianthera gradeae as synonym of A. agathophylla; A. spilantha as synonym of A. breviflora; A. antennata as synonym of A. gracilisepala; A. dichroa as synomym of A. strupifolia; Anathallis crebrifolia, A. montipelladensis, and A. ourobranquensis as synonyms of A. aristulata; A. liparanges as a synomym of A. heterophylla; A. bolsanelloi, A. githaginea, and A. nectarifera as synonyms of A. lobiserrata; A. limbata and A. marginata as synonyms of A. muscoidea; A. longiglossa as synonym of A. paranaensis; Lankesteriana gehrtii as synonym of L. caudatipetala, and Specklinia rubidantha as synonym of Lankesteriana imberbis. Correct provenance and habitat information are provided for the type collection of the recently described Anathallis johnsonii. This species is herein formally recorded for Brazil. Lectotypes are selected for seven species: Anathallis heterophylla, A. nectarifera, Lepanthes crebrifolia, Pleurothallis gracilisepala, P. microgemma, P. paranaensis, and P. spilantha, and an epitype is selected for Pleurothallis paranaensis. Illustrations and taxonomic discussions are also provided. © President and Fellows of Harvard College, 2015.

Givnish T.J.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Barfuss M.H.J.,University of Vienna | Ee B.V.,Black Hills State University | Riina R.,Real Jardin Botanico | And 16 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2014

We present an integrative model predicting associations among epiphytism, the tank habit, entangling seeds, C3 vs. CAM photosynthesis, avian pollinators, life in fertile, moist montane habitats, and net rates of species diversification in the monocot family Bromeliaceae. We test these predictions by relating evolutionary shifts in form, physiology, and ecology to time and ancestral distributions, quantifying patterns of correlated and contingent evolution among pairs of traits and analyzing the apparent impact of individual traits on rates of net species diversification and geographic expansion beyond the ancestral Guayana Shield. All predicted patterns of correlated evolution were significant, and the temporal and spatial associations of phenotypic shifts with orogenies generally accorded with predictions. Net rates of species diversification were most closely coupled to life in fertile, moist, geographically extensive cordilleras, with additional significant ties to epiphytism, avian pollination, and the tank habit. The highest rates of net diversification were seen in the bromelioid tank-epiphytic clade (Dcrown=1.05My-1), associated primarily with the Serra do Mar and nearby ranges of coastal Brazil, and in the core tillandsioids (Dcrown=0.67My-1), associated primarily with the Andes and Central America. Six large-scale adaptive radiations and accompanying pulses of speciation account for 86% of total species richness in the family. This study is among the first to test a priori hypotheses about the relationships among phylogeny, phenotypic evolution, geographic spread, and net species diversification, and to argue for causality to flow from functional diversity to spatial expansion to species diversity. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

McPherson G.,Missouri Botanical Garden | Holst B.K.,Marie Selby Botanical Gardens
Novon | Year: 2016

Conceveiba belizensis McPherson & B. Holst (Euphorbiaceae), a new species of Conceveiba Aubl., is described, differing notably from the similar C. guianensis Aubl. and C. rhytidocarpa Müll. Arg. in having staminate inflorescences unbranched (vs. paniculiform), staminate flowers with pedicels 4-9 mm long (vs. less than 2 mm) and staminodes much shorter than the stamens (vs. staminodes much longer than the stamens), and pistillate flowers sessile (vs. pedicels at least 2 mm long).

Royer C.A.,Federal University of Paraná | De Brito A.L.V.T.,Marie Selby Botanical Gardens | De Camargo Smidt E.,Federal University of Paraná
Rodriguesia | Year: 2014

Based on the study of material in Brazilian and foreign herbaria, five species and two varieties of Phymatidium are recognized for Paraná state: Phymatidium aquinoi, P. delicatulum, P. delicatulum var. curvisepalum, P. falcifolium, P. hysteranthum, P. microphyllum and P. microphyllum var. herteri. The genus is recorded in 35 of the 399 municipalities of the state, mostly inhabiting Floresta Ombrófila Densa and Floresta Ombrófila Mista vegetation, situated in the Serra do Mar, Primeiro and Segundo Planaltos. Following IUCN criteria, most taxa are classified here as vulnerable in the state. Phymatidium delicatulum is the commonest species, with the widest distribution, and P. hysteranthum, with the narrowest distribution, is recorded for the first time in Paraná. An identification key for species and varieties, descriptions, illustrations, data on distribution and conservation, and a list of representative material are provided herewith.

Aguirre-Santoro J.,New York Botanical Garden | Betancur J.,National University of Colombia | Holst B.K.,Marie Selby Botanical Gardens
Systematic Botany | Year: 2015

Two new species and a new combination for Steyerbromelia (Bromeliaceae: Navioideae) are presented. These novelties represent the first records of Steyerbromelia for Colombia. The new species, Steyerbromelia naquenensis and Steyerbromelia nukakii, were placed in Steyerbromelia based on the combination of their 3- or 4-divided inflorescences, presence of smooth posterior sepals, and ovate, shortappendaged ovules. Both species resemble each other and S. thomasii, which also occurs in the basin of the Upper Rio Negro. Steyerbromelia garcia-barrigae is transferred from Navia, despite the lack of petal appendages, because its morphological characteristics fit better the limits of Steyerbromelia. An updated description of this species is presented. We now consider Steyerbromelia to be a genus of nine species. Additionally, notes on the geographic distribution, vernacular names, conservation status, and taxonomic comments of the three species are provided, as well as a key to all of the species. Finally, a discussion on the difficulties to place these three species within a genus is presented to highlight the problems of generic delimitation of the subfamily Navioideae. © Copyright 2015 by the American Society of Plant Taxonomists.

Cao Z.,University of Florida | Deng Z.,University of Florida | McLaughlin M.,Marie Selby Botanical Gardens
Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2014

The genus Caladium Vent. is a member of the family Araceae; some of its species are cultivated as ornamentals. The present study was conducted to determine the genome size, somatic chromosome number, and their variation within 63 accessions representing 10 species of Caladium. Caladium genome sizes estimated using propidium iodide staining and flow cytometry ranged from 2.98 pg/2C in Caladium lindenii Engl. to 9.89 pg/2C in Caladium ×hortulanum Birdsey 'Chang Suek'. Two genome size groups (large and small) were evident among the 63 caladium accessions. The average genome size of 36 caladium accessions in the large genome size group was 9.29 pg/2C, roughly twice that of the 27 accessions in the small genome size group (4.50 pg/2C). Microscopic examination of squashed root tip cells revealed seven somatic chromosome numbers among 39 caladium accessions, including 2n = 18, 20, 24, 26, 30, 34, and 38, and provided the first chromosome counts for four caladium species new to Caladium. The results support the species status of C. marmoratum Mathieu ex K. Koch, C. picturatum K. Koch&C.D. Bouché, and C. steudneriifolium Engl. that were merged into C. bicolor (Aiton) Vent. previously and also support the species status of C. clavatum Hett., Bogner&J. Boos, and C. praetermissum Bogner & Hett., two species recently established in or transferred to Caladium. The results suggest that C. bicolor and C. schomburgkii Schott, not C. picturatum or C. marmoratum, are the chief parents of the fancy-leaved caladium (C. ×hortulanum). Four caladium cytotype groups (CCG-1 to -4) were identified in scatterplot of chromosome number vs. genome size. The genome size of C. bicolor, C. schomburgkii, and C. ×hortulanum in the CCG-4 is approximately twice that of C. humboldtii (Raf.) Schott and C. picturatum in the CCG-2, and the chromosome number of C. clavatum and C. marmoratum in the CCG-3 is close to twice that of C. humboldtii and C. picturatum in the CCG-2, both suggesting possible genome duplication or tetraploidization events in Caladium. However, the chromosome number of the CCG-4 species does not correspond to an expected 2n = 36 or 40, and the genome size of the CCG-3 species does not correspond to an expected 8.98 pg/2C. Conflicts between genome size and chromosome number indicate that genome duplication events were likely followed by chromosome fusions/losses in the formation of CCG-4 species and DNA losses likely followed tetraploidization in the formation of the CCG-3 species. The high level of cytological diversity found within Caladium affects germplasm collection and preservation efforts as well as breeding programs in the genus.

Toscano de Brito A.L.V.,Marie Selby Botanical Gardens | Luer C.A.,Missouri Botanical Garden
Lankesteriana | Year: 2015

Two new Brazilian species of the orchid genus Acianthera, Acianthera calopedilon and Acianthera cephalopodiglossa, are described and illustrated. The identities of Acianthera bidentula, Acianthera saundersiana, and Acianthera serpentula are discussed. Acianthera velteniana, recently described for Espírito Santo, is placed in the synonymy of Acianthera bidentula. An epitype is selected for Pleurothallis saundersiana and a lectotype for Pleurothallis serpentula. Updated synonymy lists are provided for the taxa treated in the article. © Universidad de Costa Rica, 2015.

Luer C.A.,Missouri Botanical Garden | Brito A.L.V.T.D.,Marie Selby Botanical Gardens
Harvard Papers in Botany | Year: 2012

Ten new species are described and illustrated in the Pleurothallidinae (Orchidaceae) of Brazil. They are listed here in generic alphabetical order: Acianthera echinosa, A. marquesii, Anathallis klingelfusii, A. ova trochilorum, Pabstiella brasilica, Stelis capijumensis, S.freyi, S. kautskyi, S. mystax-felis, and S. sessilis. © President and Fellows of Harvard College, 2012.

Toscano De Brito A.L.V.,Marie Selby Botanical Gardens | Royer C.A.,Federal University of Paraná | De Camargo Smidt E.,Federal University of Paraná
Lankesteriana | Year: 2016

Phymatidium glaziovii is proposed as a new synonym for P. geiselii. A lectotype and an epitype are selected for P. geiselii. Illustrations and taxonomic discussions are also provided. © Universidad de Costa Rica, 2016.

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