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Sarnowska E.,Marie Curie Memorial Cancer Center | Gratkowska D.M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Sacharowski S.P.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Cwiek P.,Polish Academy of Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2016

SWI/SNF-type ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes (CRCs) are evolutionarily conserved multiprotein machineries controlling DNA accessibility by regulating chromatin structure. We summarize here recent advances highlighting the role of SWI/SNF in the regulation of hormone signaling pathways and their crosstalk in Arabidopsis thaliana. We discuss the functional interdependences of SWI/SNF complexes and key elements regulating developmental and hormone signaling pathways by indicating intriguing similarities and differences in plants and humans, and summarize proposed mechanisms of SWI/SNF action on target loci. We postulate that, given their viability, several plant SWI/SNF mutants may serve as an attractive model for searching for conserved functions of SWI/SNF CRCs in hormone signaling, cell cycle control, and other regulatory pathways. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Archacki R.,University of Warsaw | Buszewicz D.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Sarnowski T.J.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Sarnowska E.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | And 19 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes perform a pivotal function in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants in major SWI/SNF subunits display embryo-lethal or dwarf phenotypes, indicating their critical role in molecular pathways controlling development and growth. As gibberellins (GA) are major positive regulators of plant growth, we wanted to establish whether there is a link between SWI/SNF and GA signaling in Arabidopsis. This study revealed that in brm-1 plants, depleted in SWI/SNF BRAHMA (BRM) ATPase, a number of GA-related phenotypic traits are GA-sensitive and that the loss of BRM results in markedly decreased level of endogenous bioactive GA. Transcriptional profiling of brm-1 and the GA biosynthesis mutant ga1-3, as well as the ga1-3/brm-1 double mutant demonstrated that BRM affects the expression of a large set of GA-responsive genes including genes responsible for GA biosynthesis and signaling. Furthermore, we found that BRM acts as an activator and directly associates with promoters of GA3ox1, a GA biosynthetic gene, and SCL3, implicated in positive regulation of the GA pathway. Many GA-responsive gene expression alterations in the brm-1 mutant are likely due to depleted levels of active GAs. However, the analysis of genetic interactions between BRM and the DELLA GA pathway repressors, revealed that BRM also acts on GA-responsive genes independently of its effect on GA level. Given the central position occupied by SWI/SNF complexes within regulatory networks controlling fundamental biological processes, the identification of diverse functional intersections of BRM with GA-dependent processes in this study suggests a role for SWI/SNF in facilitating crosstalk between GA-mediated regulation and other cellular pathways. © 2013 Archacki et al. Source

Sacharowski S.P.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Gratkowska D.M.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Sarnowska E.A.,Marie Curie Memorial Cancer Center | Kondrak P.,Polish Academy of Sciences | And 19 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2015

Arabidopsis thaliana SWP73A and SWP73B are homologs of mammalian BRAHMA-associated factors (BAF60s) that tether SWITCH/SUCROSE NONFERMENTING chromatin remodeling complexes to transcription factors of genes regulating various cell differentiation pathways. Here, we show that Arabidopsis thaliana SWP73s modulate several important developmental pathways. While undergoing normal vegetative development, swp73a mutants display reduced expression of FLOWERING LOCUS C and early flowering in short days. By contrast, swp73b mutants are characterized by retarded growth, severe defects in leaf and flower development, delayed flowering, and male sterility. MNase-Seq, transcript profiling, and ChIP-Seq studies demonstrate that SWP73B binds the promoters of ASYMMETRIC LEAVES1 and 2, KANADI1 and 3, and YABBY2, 3, and 5 genes, which regulate leaf development and show coordinately altered transcription in swp73b plants. Lack of SWP73B alters the expression patterns of APETALA1, APETALA3, and the MADS box gene AGL24, whereas other floral organ identity genes show reduced expression correlating with defects in flower development. Consistently, SWP73B binds to the promoter regions of APETALA1 and 3, SEPALLATA3, LEAFY, UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS, TERMINAL FLOWER1, AGAMOUS-LIKE24, and SUPPRESSOR OF CONSTANS OVEREXPRESSION1 genes, and the swp73b mutation alters nucleosome occupancy on most of these loci. In conclusion, SWP73B acts as important modulator of major developmental pathways, while SWP73A functions in flowering time control. © 2015 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved. Source

Domagalska M.A.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Domagalska M.A.,University of York | Sarnowska E.,Max Planck Institute for Plant Breeding Research | Sarnowska E.,Marie Curie Memorial Cancer Center | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Genetic interactions between phytohormones in the control of flowering time in Arabidopsis thaliana have not been extensively studied. Three phytohormones have been individually connected to the floral-timing program. The inductive function of gibberellins (GAs) is the most documented. Abscisic acid (ABA) has been demonstrated to delay flowering. Finally, the promotive role of brassinosteroids (BRs) has been established. It has been reported that for many physiological processes, hormone pathways interact to ensure an appropriate biological response. Methodology: We tested possible genetic interactions between GA-, ABA-, and BR-dependent pathways in the control of the transition to flowering. For this, single and double mutants deficient in the biosynthesis of GAs, ABA, and BRs were used to assess the effect of hormone deficiency on the timing of floral transition. Also, plants that over-express genes encoding rate-limiting enzymes in each biosynthetic pathway were generated and the flowering time of these lines was investigated. Conclusions: Loss-of-function studies revealed a complex relationship between GAs and ABA, and between ABA and BRs, and suggested a cross-regulatory relation between GAs to BRs. Gain-of-function studies revealed that GAs were clearly limiting in their sufficiency of action, whereas increases in BRs and ABA led to a more modest phenotypic effect on floral timing. We conclude from our genetic tests that the effects of GA, ABA, and BR on timing of floral induction are only in partially coordinated action. © 2010 Domagalska et al. Source

Sarnowska E.A.,Marie Curie Memorial Cancer Center | Rolicka A.T.,Polish Academy of Sciences | Rolicka A.T.,University of Warsaw | Bucior E.,Polish Academy of Sciences | And 27 more authors.
Plant Physiology | Year: 2013

Switch (SWI)/Sucrose Nonfermenting (SNF)-type chromatin-remodeling complexes (CRCs) are involved in regulation of transcription, DNA replication and repair, and cell cycle. Mutations of conserved subunits of plant CRCs severely impair growth and development; however, the underlying causes of these phenotypes are largely unknown. Here, we show that inactivation of SWI3C, the core component of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) SWI/SNF CRCs, interferes with normal functioning of several plant hormone pathways and alters transcriptional regulation of key genes of gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis. The resulting reduction of GA4 causes severe inhibition of hypocotyl and root elongation, which can be rescued by exogenous GA treatment. In addition, the swi3c mutation inhibits DELLA-dependent transcriptional activation of GIBBERELLIN-INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) GA receptor genes. Down-regulation of GID1a in parallel with the DELLA repressor gene REPRESSOR OF GA1-3 1 in swi3c indicates that lack of SWI3C also leads to defects in GA signaling. Together with the recent demonstration of function of SWI/SNF ATPase BRAHMA in the GA pathway, these results reveal a critical role of SWI/SNF CRC in the regulation of GA biosynthesis and signaling. Moreover, we demonstrate that SWI3C is capable of in vitro binding to, and shows in vivo bimolecular fluorescence complementation interaction in cell nuclei with, the DELLA proteins RGA-LIKE2 and RGA-LIKE3, which affect transcriptional activation of GID1 and GA3ox (GIBBERELLIN 3-OXIDASE) genes controlling GA perception and biosynthesis, respectively. Furthermore, we show that SWI3C also interacts with the O-GlcNAc (O-linked N-acetylglucosamine) transferase SPINDLY required for proper functioning of DELLAs and acts hypostatically to (SPINDLY) in the GA response pathway. These findings suggest that DELLA-mediated effects in GA signaling as well as their role as a hub in hormonal cross talk may be, at least in part, dependent on their direct physical interaction with complexes responsible for modulation of chromatin structure. 2013 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved. Source

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