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Wang X.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Wang X.,Tianjin Fisheries Research Institute | Yang H.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Liu G.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province | Wang Q.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology | Year: 2011

To assess the toxicity of heavy metal pollution to marine intertidal shellfish, enzymatic responses and lipid peroxidation were investigated in the clam Mactra vereformis exposed to cadmium under laboratory conditions. Three antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPx), two immune defense enzymes (acid phosphatase, ACP; alkaline phosphatase, ALP), and one lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde, MDA) were measured in the gills and the hepatopancreas of the clam exposed to 0, 25, 75, and 125 μg/L cadmium for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 d. The results show that the concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the organs soared to a peak value on the first day and then decreased afterwards in most cases. CAT and GPx activities in the hepatopancreas were higher than in the gills, but the SOD activity was lower in the hepatopancreas. ACP activity was unchanged until Day 3 in the hepatopancreas and until Day 5 in gills, when it began to increase. ALP activity showed no significant relationship with Cd treatment. MDA concentrations increased in the two tissues after Cd exposure, peaked on Day 3 in gills, and on Day 5 in hepatopancreas. These observations show that changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and ACP reflect the time course of oxidative stress in the clam caused by Cd, and could be used as potential biomarkers for ecotoxicological bioassays of heavy metals. © 2011 Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source


Min S.,Shantou University | Yan F.,Shantou University | Yan F.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province | Zhang Y.,Shantou University | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Human IgG is a well-established multifunctional antigen specific immunoglobulin molecule of the adaptive immune system. However, an antigen nonspecific immunological function of human IgG has never been reported. In this study, human IgG was isolated using ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation and diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) cellulose 52 ion exchange chromatography, from which h-IgG and hs-IgG fractions were purified on the basis of their differential binding to rabbit anti-shrimp hemocyanin antibody (h) and rabbit anti-shrimp hemocyanin's small subunit antibody (hs), respectively. We found that h-IgG had a higher hemolytic activity than hs-IgG against erythrocytes from humans, rabbits, mice and chickens, whereas the control IgG showed negligible activity. h-IgG could interact directly with erythrocyte membranes, and this interaction was suppressed by high molecular weight osmoprotectants, showing that it may follow a colloid-osmotic mechanism. In comparative proteomics and glycomics studies, h-IgG and hs-IgG yielded 20 and 5 significantly altered protein spots, respectively, on a 2-D gel. The mean carbohydrate content of h-IgG and hs-IgG was approximately 3.6- and 2-fold higher than that of IgG, respectively, and the α-D-mannose/α-D-glucose content was in the order of h-IgG>hs-IgG>IgG. In this study, a novel antigen nonspecific immune property of human IgG was investigated, and the diversity in the protein constituents and glycosylation levels may have functional signficance. © 2014 Min et al. Source


Xu Z.,Xiamen University | Xu Z.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province | Gao K.,Xiamen University
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2012

Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400. nm) is known to inhibit the photosynthesis of macroalgae, whereas nitrogen availability may alter the sensitivity of the algae to UVR. Here, we show that UV-B (280-315. nm) significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate of Gracilaria lemaneiformis. This inhibition was alleviated by enrichment with ammonia, which also caused a decrease in dark respiration. The presence of both UV-A (315-400. nm) and UV-B stimulated the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds. However, this stimulation was not affected by enrichment with ammonia. The content of phycoerythrin (PE) was increased by the enrichment of ammonia only in the absence of UVR. Ammonia uptake and the activity of nitrate reductase were repressed by UVR. However, exposure to UVR had an insignificant effect on the rate of nitrate uptake. In conclusion, increased PE content associated with ammonia enrichment played a protective role against UVR in this alga, and UVR differentially affected the uptake of nitrate and ammonia. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Tang X.,Ocean University of China | Diao J.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province | Zhan W.,Ocean University of China | Sheng X.,Ocean University of China
Aquaculture | Year: 2012

Flounder gill (FG) cell line derived from the gill tissue of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was employed as a target cell for investigating the molecules involved in lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) binding and infection. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that LCDV could attach to the FG cells membrane susceptibly. By virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA), a 37.6. kDa LCDV-binding protein was detected in FG cells' membrane. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the 37.6. kDa protein was a single polypeptide with PI of 6.0. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that the 37.6. kDa protein had a strong association with a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. While treated with trypsin or sodium periodate, the binding ability of the 37.6. kDa protein to LCDV was inhibited, which suggested that sugar chains of the 37.6. kDa glycosylated protein were involved in virus binding. Polyclonal antibodies were obtained by immunizing the rabbit with electroeluted 37.6. kDa protein, which showed a dose-dependent blocking effect to the binding between LCDV and 37.6. kDa protein in modified VOPBA, and also inhibited LCDV infection to FG cells in virus infection assay. These results demonstrated that the 37.6. kDa trypsin-sensitive glycoprotein might be a potential receptor for LCDV infection to FG cells. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source


Wei J.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | Wang S.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province | Liu G.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology | Pei D.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2014

The effects of polysaccharides from Enteromorpha prolifera (PEP) on cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity and mononuclear phagocytic system function were evaluated to assess the immunomodulatory potential of these macromolecules. Relevant immunological mechanisms were verified by biochemical assays and western blot analysis. Results showed that PEP could induce splenocyte proliferation. In vivo experiments on Kunming mice confirmed that PEP could improve cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity and mononuclear phagocytic system function. To illustrate the mechanism, we determined several immune-related enzymes in the thymus and spleen. The results indicated that PEP could enhance the activities of alkaline phosphatase, superoxide dismutase and lactate dehydrogenase. PEP could also increase the level of NF-κB. These results suggested that PEP exhibited potent immunomodulatory properties and could be used as a novel potential immunostimulant in food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source

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