Wei J.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics |
Wang S.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province |
Liu G.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology |
Pei D.,CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics |
And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Biological Macromolecules | Year: 2014
The effects of polysaccharides from Enteromorpha prolifera (PEP) on cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity and mononuclear phagocytic system function were evaluated to assess the immunomodulatory potential of these macromolecules. Relevant immunological mechanisms were verified by biochemical assays and western blot analysis. Results showed that PEP could induce splenocyte proliferation. In vivo experiments on Kunming mice confirmed that PEP could improve cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity and mononuclear phagocytic system function. To illustrate the mechanism, we determined several immune-related enzymes in the thymus and spleen. The results indicated that PEP could enhance the activities of alkaline phosphatase, superoxide dismutase and lactate dehydrogenase. PEP could also increase the level of NF-κB. These results suggested that PEP exhibited potent immunomodulatory properties and could be used as a novel potential immunostimulant in food and pharmaceutical industries. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Wang X.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology |
Wang X.,Tianjin Fisheries Research Institute |
Yang H.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology |
Liu G.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province |
Wang Q.,CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology | Year: 2011
To assess the toxicity of heavy metal pollution to marine intertidal shellfish, enzymatic responses and lipid peroxidation were investigated in the clam Mactra vereformis exposed to cadmium under laboratory conditions. Three antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; glutathione peroxidase, GPx), two immune defense enzymes (acid phosphatase, ACP; alkaline phosphatase, ALP), and one lipid peroxidation product (malondialdehyde, MDA) were measured in the gills and the hepatopancreas of the clam exposed to 0, 25, 75, and 125 μg/L cadmium for 0, 1, 3, 5, and 7 d. The results show that the concentrations of antioxidant enzymes in the organs soared to a peak value on the first day and then decreased afterwards in most cases. CAT and GPx activities in the hepatopancreas were higher than in the gills, but the SOD activity was lower in the hepatopancreas. ACP activity was unchanged until Day 3 in the hepatopancreas and until Day 5 in gills, when it began to increase. ALP activity showed no significant relationship with Cd treatment. MDA concentrations increased in the two tissues after Cd exposure, peaked on Day 3 in gills, and on Day 5 in hepatopancreas. These observations show that changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes and ACP reflect the time course of oxidative stress in the clam caused by Cd, and could be used as potential biomarkers for ecotoxicological bioassays of heavy metals. © 2011 Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Xu Z.,Xiamen University |
Xu Z.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province |
Gao K.,Xiamen University
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2012
Solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280-400. nm) is known to inhibit the photosynthesis of macroalgae, whereas nitrogen availability may alter the sensitivity of the algae to UVR. Here, we show that UV-B (280-315. nm) significantly reduced the net photosynthetic rate of Gracilaria lemaneiformis. This inhibition was alleviated by enrichment with ammonia, which also caused a decrease in dark respiration. The presence of both UV-A (315-400. nm) and UV-B stimulated the accumulation of UV-absorbing compounds. However, this stimulation was not affected by enrichment with ammonia. The content of phycoerythrin (PE) was increased by the enrichment of ammonia only in the absence of UVR. Ammonia uptake and the activity of nitrate reductase were repressed by UVR. However, exposure to UVR had an insignificant effect on the rate of nitrate uptake. In conclusion, increased PE content associated with ammonia enrichment played a protective role against UVR in this alga, and UVR differentially affected the uptake of nitrate and ammonia. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | CAS Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province and CAS Qingdao Institute of Oceanology
Type: | Journal: International journal of biological macromolecules | Year: 2014
The effects of polysaccharides from Enteromorpha prolifera (PEP) on cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity and mononuclear phagocytic system function were evaluated to assess the immunomodulatory potential of these macromolecules. Relevant immunological mechanisms were verified by biochemical assays and western blot analysis. Results showed that PEP could induce splenocyte proliferation. In vivo experiments on Kunming mice confirmed that PEP could improve cell-mediated immunity, humoral immunity and mononuclear phagocytic system function. To illustrate the mechanism, we determined several immune-related enzymes in the thymus and spleen. The results indicated that PEP could enhance the activities of alkaline phosphatase, superoxide dismutase and lactate dehydrogenase. PEP could also increase the level of NF-B. These results suggested that PEP exhibited potent immunomodulatory properties and could be used as a novel potential immunostimulant in food and pharmaceutical industries.
Min S.,Shantou University |
Yan F.,Shantou University |
Yan F.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province |
Zhang Y.,Shantou University |
And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014
Human IgG is a well-established multifunctional antigen specific immunoglobulin molecule of the adaptive immune system. However, an antigen nonspecific immunological function of human IgG has never been reported. In this study, human IgG was isolated using ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation and diethylaminoethanol (DEAE) cellulose 52 ion exchange chromatography, from which h-IgG and hs-IgG fractions were purified on the basis of their differential binding to rabbit anti-shrimp hemocyanin antibody (h) and rabbit anti-shrimp hemocyanin's small subunit antibody (hs), respectively. We found that h-IgG had a higher hemolytic activity than hs-IgG against erythrocytes from humans, rabbits, mice and chickens, whereas the control IgG showed negligible activity. h-IgG could interact directly with erythrocyte membranes, and this interaction was suppressed by high molecular weight osmoprotectants, showing that it may follow a colloid-osmotic mechanism. In comparative proteomics and glycomics studies, h-IgG and hs-IgG yielded 20 and 5 significantly altered protein spots, respectively, on a 2-D gel. The mean carbohydrate content of h-IgG and hs-IgG was approximately 3.6- and 2-fold higher than that of IgG, respectively, and the α-D-mannose/α-D-glucose content was in the order of h-IgG>hs-IgG>IgG. In this study, a novel antigen nonspecific immune property of human IgG was investigated, and the diversity in the protein constituents and glycosylation levels may have functional signficance. © 2014 Min et al.
Liu H.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province |
Liu M.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province |
Ge S.,Ocean University of China |
Wang Q.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province |
And 2 more authors.
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology | Year: 2012
To investigate the genetic diversity, population structure and historical demography of Perinereris aibuhitensis, a 684 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene was analyzed in 92 organisms sampled from around the coasts of Shandong Peninsula. The results showed low haplotype diversity and nucleotide diversity in P. aibuhitensis. Topologies of neighbor-joining trees were shallow but the frequencies of common haplotypes indicated recent evolutionary lineages in the associated geographic areas. Significant genetic differentiations were detected among the four sampled populations, reflecting limited gene flow. Neutrality tests and mismatch distributions showed population expansion in P. aibuhitensis, but a recent bottleneck or selection event is indicated for the samples in the Yellow River Estuary and the Jiaozhou Bay. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Tang X.,Ocean University of China |
Diao J.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province |
Zhan W.,Ocean University of China |
Sheng X.,Ocean University of China
Aquaculture | Year: 2012
Flounder gill (FG) cell line derived from the gill tissue of Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) was employed as a target cell for investigating the molecules involved in lymphocystis disease virus (LCDV) binding and infection. Indirect immunofluorescence assay showed that LCDV could attach to the FG cells membrane susceptibly. By virus overlay protein binding assay (VOPBA), a 37.6. kDa LCDV-binding protein was detected in FG cells' membrane. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis revealed that the 37.6. kDa protein was a single polypeptide with PI of 6.0. Mass spectrometric analysis showed that the 37.6. kDa protein had a strong association with a coiled-coil domain-containing protein. While treated with trypsin or sodium periodate, the binding ability of the 37.6. kDa protein to LCDV was inhibited, which suggested that sugar chains of the 37.6. kDa glycosylated protein were involved in virus binding. Polyclonal antibodies were obtained by immunizing the rabbit with electroeluted 37.6. kDa protein, which showed a dose-dependent blocking effect to the binding between LCDV and 37.6. kDa protein in modified VOPBA, and also inhibited LCDV infection to FG cells in virus infection assay. These results demonstrated that the 37.6. kDa trypsin-sensitive glycoprotein might be a potential receptor for LCDV infection to FG cells. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Liu W.,CAS South China Sea Institute of Oceanology |
Li Q.,Ocean University of China |
Li Q.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province |
Gao F.,Ocean University of China |
And 3 more authors.
Fisheries Science | Year: 2010
The effects of starvation on biochemical composition and gametogenesis were investigated in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas. Histological analysis, combined with oocyte examination and measurements of protein, glycogen and lipid levels and RNA/DNA ratio from gonad, adductor muscle and mantle tissue of each sex were performed. In the starved groups, C. gigas showed gonad development, but the progress was delayed during the experiment. Glycogen was the first substrate used by C. gigas for dealing with lack of food. While glycogen was rapidly consumed, protein and lipid contents decreased gradually. A decrease in the RNA/DNA ratio in the starved groups in all the body components was found during starvation, illustrating that RNA/DNA ratio was a valid indicator of nutritional condition in C. gigas. A significant increase in water and ash contents and a corresponding decrease in condition index were observed in the starved groups, showing that the water and ash content and condition index were related to the usage of glycogen, lipid and protein reserves in body composition. During starvation, energy reserves were mobilized for survival and gonad development, but spawning was arrested. The information obtained in this study is useful for broodstock management in the Pacific oyster industry. © 2010 The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science.
Du R.,Yantai University |
Liu L.,Yantai University |
Liu L.,Ocean University of China |
Wang A.,Yantai University |
Wang Y.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province
Chinese Journal of Oceanology and Limnology | Year: 2013
Gracilaria asiatica, being highly efficient in nutrient absorption, is cultivated in sea cucumber ponds to remove nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphate. It was cultured in a laboratory simulating field conditions, and its nutrient absorption was measured to evaluate effects of environmental conditions. Ammonia nitrogen (AN), nitrate nitrogen (NN), total inorganic nitrogen (TIN), and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) uptake rate and removal efficiency were determined in a 4×2 factorial design experiment in water temperatures (T) at 15°C and 25°C, algae biomass (AB) at 0. 5 g/L and 1. 0 g/L, total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) at 30 μmol/L and 60 μmol/L, and soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) at 3 and 6 μmol/L. AB and ambient TIN or SRP levels significantly affected uptake rate and removal efficiency of AN, NN, TIN, and SRP (P< 0. 001). G. asiatica in AB of 0. 5 g/L showed higher uptake rate and lower removal efficiency relative to that with AB of 1. 0 g/L. Nitrogen and phosphorus uptake rate rose with increasing ambient nutrient concentrations; nutrient removal efficiency decreased at higher environmental nutrient concentrations. The algae preferred to absorb AN to NN. Uptake rates of AN, NN, and SRP were significantly affected by temperature (P < 0. 001); uptake rate was higher for the 25°C group than for the 15°C group at the initial experiment stage. Only the removal efficiency of AN and SRP showed a significant difference between the two temperature groups (P< 0. 01). The four factors had significant interactive effects on absorption of N and P, implying that G. asiatica has great bioremedial potential in sea cucumber culture ponds. © 2013 Chinese Society for Oceanology and Limnology, Science Press and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Wang S.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province |
Ye H.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province |
Li T.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province |
Yang X.,Mariculture Institute of Shandong Province |
And 3 more authors.
Journal of the World Aquaculture Society | Year: 2013
The potential immunostimulatory effects of small peptides on sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus, were investigated in vivo and in vitro. Small peptides were injected into sea cucumbers and a control group was injected with equal volume of sterile filtered seawater. The nonspecific humoral and cellular responses were determined, respectively, and sea cucumbers were challenged by Vibrio splendidus. The results showed that test groups significantly enhanced most of the immune parameters tested (P < 0.05). Both phagocytic capacity and respiratory burst activity were up to maximum value on the fourth day and the values were 2.3 and 1.4 times as high as the control group, respectively. However, small peptides had no significant effect on total coelomocytes counts. Among the humoral responses, the activities of acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, and superoxide dismutase were up to maximum value on the fourth, fourthth and seventh day, respectively. The values were 2.3, 2.2, and 2.0 times as high as the control group, respectively. At the end of the challenge, the cumulative mortality rate of sea cucumber injected with 0.5 mg small peptides (43.3%) was significantly lower than the control group (66.7%). In conclusion, small peptides as an additive could improve the nonspecific immunity level of Apostichopus japonicus. © by the World Aquaculture Society 2013.