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Vittoria, Italy

Maestroni S.,Internal Medicine | Di Corato P.R.,Internal Medicine | Cumetti D.,Internal Medicine | Chiara D.B.L.C.,Internal Medicine | And 9 more authors.
Autoimmunity Reviews | Year: 2012

Idiopathic recurrent acute pericarditis (IRAP) represents the most troublesome complication of acute pericarditis and occurs in up to 20-50% of patients. It is generally idiopathic or postcardiac injury. IRAP is a disease of suspected immune-mediated pathogenesis. On the other hand, it has been suggested that some of these patients might have an atypical or subclinical form of an autoinflammatory disease, e.g. genetic disorders characterized by primary dysfunction of the innate immune system and caused by mutations of genes involved in the inflammatory response. We found that IRAP patients were negative for mutations associated with familial Mediterranean fever, but 6% (8/131 patients) carry a mutation in the TNFRSF1A gene, encoding the receptor for tumor necrosis factor-alfa.C-reactive protein (CRP) may be useful to follow the disease activity and guide the appropriate length of therapy, with continuation of the attack doses of the drugs until CRP normalization, at which time tapering may be considered. IRAP often needs a multidrug therapy: NSAIDs or aspirin at high dosages every 6-8. h, corticosteroids only rarely, at low dosages and with a very gradual tapering (months) and colchicine at low dosages if tolerated. Anakinra could be a solution for patients who do not tolerate other therapies. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

D'Ascenzo F.,University of Turin | D'Ascenzo F.,Cardiogrouporg Collaborative Group | Cerrato E.,University of Turin | Cerrato E.,Cardiogrouporg Collaborative Group | And 24 more authors.
Atherosclerosis | Year: 2015

Introduction: Asymptomatic patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are at increased risk of vascular disease. Whether asymptomatic HIV patients have increased prevalence or structural differences in coronary artery plaques is not clear. Methods: Pubmed, Cochrane and Google Scholar were searched for articles evaluating asymptomatic HIV patients evaluated with coronary computed tomography. The prevalence of coronary stenosis (defined as >30% and >50%), of calcified coronary plaques (CCP) viewed as more 'stable' plaques, and of non-calcified coronary plaques (NCP) viewed as more 'vulnerable' plaques were the end points of interest. Results: 9 studies with 1229 HIV patients and 1029 controls were included. No significant differences were detected about baseline cardiovascular risk profile. The prevalence of significant coronary stenosis >30% or >50% did not differ between HIV+ and HIV- patients (42% [37-44] and 46% [35-52] with an Odds Ratio [OR] of 1.38 [0.86-2.20] for >30% stenosis) and (15% [9-21] and 14% [7-22] with an OR of 1.11 [0.81-1.52]), respectively. The prevalence of calcified coronary plaques (CCP) (31% [24-32] and 21% [14-30] with an OR of 1.17 [0.63-2.16]) also did not differ among HIV+ and HIV- patients. On the contrary rates of NCP were >3-fold higher in HIV-positive patients [58% (48-60) and 17% (14-27) with an OR of 3.26 (1-30-8.18)], with an inverse relationship with CD4 cell count at meta-regression (Beta-0.20 [-0.35-0.18], p 0.04). Conclusion: Asymptomatic HIV patients present a similar burden of coronary stenosis and calcified coronary artery plaques but significantly higher rates of non-calcific coronary plaques at computed tomography. The association between HIV infection, reduced CD4 cell counts and higher prevalence on non-calcific coronary artery plaques may shed light into the pathogenesis in HIV-associated coronary artery disease, stressing the importance of primary prevention in this population. © 2015.

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