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Van Roosbroeck K.,Catholic University of Leuven | Van Roosbroeck K.,Center for the Biology of Disease | Ferreiro J.F.,Catholic University of Leuven | Tousseyn T.,Catholic University of Leuven | And 12 more authors.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer | Year: 2016

The recurrent 9p24.1 aberrations in lymphoid malignancies potentially involving four cancer-related and druggable genes (JAK2, CD274/PDL1, PDCD1LG2/PDL2, and KDM4C/JMJD2Cl) are incompletely characterized. To gain more insight into the anatomy of these abnormalities, at first we studied 9p24.1 alterations in 18 leukemia/lymphoma cases using cytogenetic and molecular techniques. The aberrations comprised structural (nine cases) and numerical (nine cases) alterations. The former lesions were heterogeneous but shared a common breakpoint region of 200 kb downstream of JAK2. The rearrangements predominantly targeted the PDL locus. We have identified five potential partner genes of PDL1/2: PHACTR4 (1p34), N4BP2 (4p14), EEF1A1 (6q13), JAK2 (9p24.1), and IGL (22q11). Interestingly, the cryptic JAK2-PDL1 rearrangement was generated by a microdeletion spanning the 3'JAK2-5'PDL1 region. JAK2 was additionally involved in a cytogenetically cryptic IGH-mediated t(9;14)(p24.1;q32) found in two patients. This rare but likely underestimated rearrangement highlights the essential role of JAK2 in B-cell neoplasms. Cases with amplification of 9p24.1 were diagnosed as primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma (five cases) and T-cell lymphoma (four cases). The smallest amplified 9p24.1 region was restricted to the JAK2-PDL1/2-RANBP6 interval. In the next step, we screened 200 cases of classical Hodgkin lymphoma by interphase FISH and identified PDL1/2 rearrangement (CIITA- and IGH-negative) in four cases (2%), what is a novel finding. Forty (25%) cases revealed high level amplification of 9p24.1, including four cases with a selective amplification of PDL1/2. Altogether, the majority of 9p24.1 rearrangements occurring in lymphoid malignancies seem to target the programmed death-1 ligands, what potentiates the therapeutic activity of PD-1 blockade in these tumors. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Jurczak W.,Jagiellonian University | Kalinka-Warzocha E.,University of Lodz | Chmielowska E.,Center of Oncology of Poland | Duchnowska R.,Military Institute of Medicine | And 2 more authors.
Wspolczesna Onkologia | Year: 2015

Aim of the study: PROFIL was a prospective observational study conducted to investigate physicians' evaluation of febrile neutropenia (FN) risk and reasons for giving pegfilgrastim primary prophylaxis (PP) in routine clinical practice in Poland. Material and methods: Adult cancer patients treated with chemotherapy (CT), assessed by investigators as having high overall FN risk, and who received pegfilgrastim in cycle 1 were enrolled between 03/2009 and 09/2010. Investigators assessed FN risk of the CT regimen, individual risk factors, and overall FN risk, and were asked to provide the most important reasons for providing pegfilgrastim PP. Investigator-assessed CT FN risk was compared with guideline classification. Results: Data were analysed from 1006 breast, ovarian, and lung cancer, and non-Hodgkin (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) patients. The most important reasons for using pegfilgrastim PP were high CT FN risk and advanced disease; these were consistent across tumour types and treatment intent. The investigators generally assessed high CT FN risk in agreement with guideline classification. Febrile neutropenia occurred in 4% of patients, most commonly in HL, NHL, and patients with advanced disease. Conclusions: High CT FN risk and advanced stage of disease were found to be the most important reasons for providing pegfilgrastim PP by physicians in Poland. Source

Olszewski W.,Maria Sklodowska Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute | Wojas-Krawczyk K.,Medical University of Lublin | Krawczyk P.,Medical University of Lublin
Respiration | Year: 2013

Background: Chemotherapy is the principal treatment method for patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Treatment with platinum-based and novel chemotherapeutic regimens, compared to monotherapy, slightly increases the response rates to 20-40%. The predictive and prognostic values of molecular factors are highly variable; however, data on clinical-demographic factors are still burdened by significant limitations. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the prognostic value of synaptophysin and chromogranin A protein expression in patients receiving palliative chemotherapy for advanced NSCLC. Methods: The study population consisted of 23 women and 116 men. The median age was 57.3 years. Expression of synaptophysin and chromogranin was assessed using a two-step model of immunohistochemical staining. Level 0 represented lack of activity, while level 1 represented its expression. Results: Expression of synaptophysin and chromogranin A was observed in 12 (8.6%) and 5 (3.6%) patients, respectively. The risk of death was significantly lower in patients with expression of synaptophysin (p = 0.008) and chromogranin A (p = 0.014). The 12- and 24-month survival rate of patients with synaptophysin expression was 64% (95% CI 0.35-0.93), while for patients without expression it was 46% (95% CI 0.36-0.56) and 16% (95% CI 0.07-0.25), respectively. The 12- and 24-month survival rate of patients with chromogranin expression was 80% (95% CI 0.44-1.00), while for chromogranin A-negative patients it was 47% (95% CI 0.37-0.57) and 19% (95% CI 0.10-0.28), respectively. We did not observe associations between expression of synaptophysin and chromogranin A and the other typical prognostic factors. Conclusions: Expression of synaptophysin and chromogranin A was associated with a longer median overall survival and might have prognostic value. These results should be confirmed in a prospective study. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel. Source

Alhourani E.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Othman M.A.K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Melo J.B.,University of Coimbra | Melo J.B.,Research Center for Environment | And 12 more authors.
Oncology Letters | Year: 2016

Deletions within chromosome 11q22-23, are consid­ered among the most common chromosomal aberrations in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), and are associated with a poor outcome. In addition to the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) gene, the baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 3 (BIRC3) gene is also located in the region. BIRC3 encodes a negative regulator of the non-canonical nuclear factor κ-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) protein. Disruption of BIRC3 is known to be restricted to CLL fludarabine-refractory patients. The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of copy number changes of BIRC3 and to assess its association with two known predictors of negative CLL outcome, ATM and tumor protein 53 (TP53) gene deletions. To evaluate the specificity of BIRC3 alterations to CLL, BIRC3 copy numbers were assessed in 117 CLL patients in addition to 45 B-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia (B-ALL) patients. A commercially available multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification kit, which includes four probes for the detection of TP53 and four probes for ATM gene region, was applied. Interphase-directed fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to apply commercially available probes for BIRC3, ATM and TP53. High resolution array-comparative genomic hybridization was conducted in selected cases. Genetic abnormalities of BIRC3 were detected in 23/117 (~20%) of CLL and 2/45 (~4%) of B-ALL cases. Overall, 20 patients with CLL and 1 with B-ALL possessed a BIRC3 deletion, whilst 3 patients with CLL and 1 with B-ALL harbored a BIRC3 duplication. All patients with an ATM deletion also carried a BIRC3 deletion. Only 2 CLL cases possessed deletions in BIRC3, ATM and TP53 simultaneously. Evidently, the deletion or duplication of BIRC3 may be observed rarely in B-ALL patients. BIRC3 duplication may occur in CLL patients, for which the prognosis requires additional studies in the future. The likelihood that TP53 deletions occur simultaneously with BIRC3 and/or ATM aberrations is low. However, as ATM deletions may, but not always, associate with BIRC3 deletions, each region should be considered in the future diagnostics of CLL in order to aid treatment decisions, notably whether to treat with or without fludarabine. © 2016, Spandidos Publications. All rights reserved. Source

Othman M.A.K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | Melo J.B.,University of Coimbra | Carreira I.M.,University of Coimbra | Rincic M.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | And 11 more authors.
Molecular Cytogenetics | Year: 2015

Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is not a single uniform disease. It consists of several subgroups with different cytogenetic and molecular genetic aberrations, clinical presentations and outcomes. Banding cytogenetics plays a pivotal role in the detection of recurrent chromosomal rearrangements and is the starting point of genetic analysis in ALL, still. Nowadays, molecular (cyto)genetic tools provide substantially to identify previously non-detectable, so-called cryptic chromosomal aberrations in ALL. However, ALL according to banding cytogenetics with normal karyotype - in short cytogenetically normal ALL (CN-ALL) - represent up to ∼50 % of all new diagnosed ALL cases. The overall goal of this study was to identify and characterize the rate of cryptic alterations in CN-ALL and to rule out if one single routine approach may be sufficient to detect most of the cryptic alterations present. Results: Sixty-one ALL patients with CN-ALL were introduced in this study. All of them underwent high resolution fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis. Also DNA could be extracted from 34 ALL samples. These DNA-samples were studied using a commercially available MLPA (multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification) probe set directed against 37 loci in hematological malignancies and/or array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH). Chromosomal aberrations were detected in 21 of 61 samples (∼34 %) applying FISH approaches: structural abnormalities were present in 15 cases and even numerical ones were identified in 6 cases. Applying molecular approaches copy number alterations (CNAs) were detected in 27/34 samples. Overall, 126 CNAs were identified and only 34 of them were detectable by MLPA (∼27 %). Loss of CNs was identified in ∼80 % while gain of CNs was present in ∼20 % of the 126 CNAs. A maximum of 13 aberrations was detected per case; however, only one aberration per case was found in 8 of all in detail studied 34 cases. Of special interest among the detected CNAs are the following new findings: del(15)(q26.1q26.1) including CHD2 gene was found in 20 % of the studied ALL cases, dup(18)(q21.2q21.2) with the DCC gene was present in 9 % of the cases, and the CDK6 gene in 7q21.2 was deleted in 12 % of the here in detail studied ALL cases. Conclusions: In conclusion, high resolution molecular cytogenetic tools and molecular approaches like MLPA and aCGH need to be combined in a cost-efficient way, to identify disease and progression causing alterations in ALL, as majority of them are cryptic in banding cytogenetic analyses. © 2015 Othman et al. Source

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