Coles C.D.,Emory University |
Coles C.D.,Marcus Autism Center
Alcohol Research and Health | Year: 2011
Fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are underdiagnosed in general treatment settings. Among the factors involved in identifying the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are (1) the evidence for prenatal alcohol exposure; (2) the effects of the postnatal, caregiving environment; (3) comorbidities; and (4) differential diagnosis, which includes identifying the neurodevelopmental effects of alcohol and discriminating these effects from those characterizing other conditions. This article reviews findings on the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal alcohol exposure, including learning and memory, motor and sensory/motor effects, visual/spatial skills, and executive functioning and effortful control. Encouraging clinicians to discriminate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure from other conditions may require more education and training but ultimately will improve outcomes for affected children.
Call N.A.,Emory University |
Lomas Mevers J.E.,Marcus Autism Center
Behavioral Interventions | Year: 2014
Research has demonstrated the feasibility of using positive reinforcement to treat problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. This line of research was extended in the current study. A functional analysis (FA) was conducted that suggested problem behavior was maintained by positive and negative reinforcement. Following the FA, a demand analysis was conducted with three demand conditions: one that replicated the demand condition from the FA, one that included presession exposure to a preferred item, and another that included presession exposure to preferred items and access to those items during breaks from demands. Although problem behavior occurred in all three demand conditions, within session analyses showed that problem behavior ceased during breaks from demands only when they included access to preferred items. This finding suggests that the motivating operation responsible for evoking problem behavior did not decrease when only a break was provided. Subsequent functional communication training and treatment analysis showed that treatments based on positive reinforcement were effective at reducing problem behavior, but those based on a negative reinforcement hypothesis were not. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Goldstein F.,Marcus Autism Center |
Glueck D.,Washington University in St. Louis
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology | Year: 2016
Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the special considerations for building rapport and establishing a therapeutic alliance when conducting mental health evaluations for children and adolescents via videoconferencing. Methods: The authors review the literature and describe their experience in conducting mental health evaluations, developing rapport, and establishing a therapeutic alliance during telemental health practice. Results: Clinical need and shortages of clinicians with expertise in evaluating mental conditions for children and adolescents in underserved communities have stimulated the rapid expansion of telemental health programs while the research base continues to develop. The emerging evidence base and clinical experience suggest that teleclinicians can, and do, build rapport and establish a therapeutic alliance during telemental health sessions with youth and families. Families may be more accepting of telemental health approaches than clinicians. The impact that technology, equipment, site staff, community supports, cultural identification, and teleclinicians' characteristics have on building rapport and establishing a therapeutic alliance should be considered when establishing a telemental health service. Staff at the patient site and referring providers have a valuable role in supporting the therapeutic alliance between telemental health providers and their patients, and ultimately supporting the success of a telemental health program. Conclusions: Teleclinicians are creative in transcending the videoconferencing technology to evaluate patients using guideline-based care. Further research is needed to determine how clinicians build rapport and establish a therapeutic alliance during telemental health sessions, and whether the therapeutic alliance is associated with the accuracy of evaluation and outcomes. © Copyright 2016, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2016.
Goodman S.H.,Emory University |
Rouse M.H.,Emory University |
Connell A.M.,Case Western Reserve University |
Broth M.R.,Georgia Gwinnett College |
And 2 more authors.
Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review | Year: 2011
Although the association between maternal depression and adverse child outcomes is well established, the strength of the association, the breadth or specificity of the outcomes, and the role of moderators are not known. This information is essential to inform not only models of risk but also the design of preventive interventions by helping to identify subgroups at greater risk than others and to elucidate potential mechanisms as targets of interventions. A meta-analysis of 193 studies was conducted to examine the strength of the association between mothers' depression and children's behavioral problems or emotional functioning. Maternal depression was significantly related to higher levels of internalizing, externalizing, and general psychopathology and negative affect/behavior and to lower levels of positive affect/behavior, with all associations small in magnitude. These associations were significantly moderated by theoretically and methodologically relevant variables, with patterns of moderation found to vary somewhat with each child outcome. Results are interpreted in terms of implications for theoretical models that move beyond main effects models in order to more accurately identify which children of depressed mothers are more or less at risk for specific outcomes. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Tanaka J.W.,University of Victoria |
Wolf J.M.,Yale University |
Klaiman C.,Marcus Autism Center |
Koenig K.,Yale University |
And 8 more authors.
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2012
Background: Although impaired social-emotional ability is a hallmark of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), the perceptual skills and mediating strategies contributing to the social deficits of autism are not well understood. A perceptual skill that is fundamental to effective social communication is the ability to accurately perceive and interpret facial emotions. To evaluate the expression processing of participants with ASD, we designed the Let's Face It! Emotion Skills Battery (LFI! Battery), a computer-based assessment composed of three subscales measuring verbal and perceptual skills implicated in the recognition of facial emotions. Methods: We administered the LFI! Battery to groups of participants with ASD and typically developing control (TDC) participants that were matched for age and IQ. Results: On the Name Game labeling task, participants with ASD (N = 68) performed on par with TDC individuals (N = 66) in their ability to name the facial emotions of happy, sad, disgust and surprise and were only impaired in their ability to identify the angry expression. On the Matchmaker Expression task that measures the recognition of facial emotions across different facial identities, the ASD participants (N = 66) performed reliably worse than TDC participants (N = 67) on the emotions of happy, sad, disgust, frighten and angry. In the Parts-Wholes test of perceptual strategies of expression, the TDC participants (N = 67) displayed more holistic encoding for the eyes than the mouths in expressive faces whereas ASD participants (N = 66) exhibited the reverse pattern of holistic recognition for the mouth and analytic recognition of the eyes. Conclusion: In summary, findings from the LFI! Battery show that participants with ASD were able to label the basic facial emotions (with the exception of angry expression) on par with age- and IQ-matched TDC participants. However, participants with ASD were impaired in their ability to generalize facial emotions across different identities and showed a tendency to recognize the mouth feature holistically and the eyes as isolated parts. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.