Bilo M.B.,Marche Polytechnic University
Allergy: European Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology | Year: 2011
Hymenoptera venom allergy occasionally causes fatal reactions. The prevalence of systemic reactions (SRs) is 0.3-8.9%, with anaphylaxis in 0.3-42.8% of cases. Factors contributing to reaction severity include older age, insect type, a previous less severe SR, preexisting diseases, concomitant treatments, mast cell diseases and elevated baseline tryptase serum concentration. Venom immunotherapy (VIT) is highly effective, as shown by sting challenge and spontaneous field stings. Indications for VIT are based on history of an SR, positive diagnostic tests, natural history and established risk factors for a severe outcome. Current strategies for reducing adverse reactions include anti-IgE monoclonal antibody pretreatment, and purified aqueous and purified aluminium hydroxide adsorbed preparations. New strategies for VIT, mostly using recombinant allergen, are in development. Further improvements will increase the safety and efficacy of VIT. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Fasano A.,University of Maryland Baltimore County |
Catassi C.,University of Maryland Baltimore County |
Catassi C.,Marche Polytechnic University
New England Journal of Medicine | Year: 2012
A 22-year-old woman fractures her wrist while playing volleyball. She reports a history of fatigue and intermittent oral ulcerations but no other symptoms. Radiography of her wrist shows osteopenia. Laboratory testing is notable for a hematocrit of 32% and low levels of ferritin and 25-hydroxyvitamin D. Although she reports no gastrointestinal symptoms, celiac disease is suspected. How should she be further evaluated and, if testing indicates celiac disease, how should her case be managed? Copyright © 2012 Massachusetts Medical Society.
Fabri M.,Marche Polytechnic University
Neural plasticity | Year: 2013
The concept of a topographical map of the corpus callosum (CC) has emerged from human lesion studies and from electrophysiological and anatomical tracing investigations in other mammals. Over the last few years a rising number of researchers have been reporting functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation in white matter, particularly the CC. In this study the scope for describing CC topography with fMRI was explored by evoking activation through simple sensory stimulation and motor tasks. We reviewed our published and unpublished fMRI and diffusion tensor imaging data on the cortical representation of tactile, gustatory, auditory, and visual sensitivity and of motor activation, obtained in 36 normal volunteers and in 6 patients with partial callosotomy. Activation foci were consistently detected in discrete CC regions: anterior (taste stimuli), central (motor tasks), central and posterior (tactile stimuli), and splenium (auditory and visual stimuli). Reconstruction of callosal fibers connecting activated primary gustatory, motor, somatosensory, auditory, and visual cortices by diffusion tensor tracking showed bundles crossing, respectively, through the genu, anterior and posterior body, and splenium, at sites harboring fMRI foci. These data confirm that the CC commissure has a topographical organization and demonstrate that its functional topography can be explored with fMRI.
Cinti S.,Marche Polytechnic University
Annals of Medicine | Year: 2011
In all mammals including humans, most white and brown adipocytes are found together in visceral and subcutaneous depots (adipose organ) despite the well known difference in their function, respectively of storing energy and producing heat. A growing body of evidence suggests that the reason for such anatomical arrangement is their plasticity, which under appropriate stimulation allows direct conversion of one cell type into the other. In conditions of chronic cold exposure white-to-brown conversion meets the need for thermogenesis, whereas an obesogenic diet induces brown-to-white conversion to meet the need for storing energy. White-to-brown transdifferentiation is of medical interest, because the brown phenotype of the adipose organ is associated to obesity resistance, and drugs inducing this phenotype curb murine obesity and related disorders. Type 2 diabetes is the most common disorder associated to visceral obesity. Macrophages infiltrating the adipose organ are responsible for the low-grade chronic inflammation related to the removal of dead adipocytes, which leads to insulin resistance and T2 diabetes. Adipocyte death is closely related to their growth up to the critical death size. The critical death size of visceral adipocytes is smaller than that of subcutaneous adipocytes, likely accounting for the greater morbidity related to visceral fat. © 2011 Informa UK, Ltd.
Gallegati M.,Marche Polytechnic University
Computational Statistics and Data Analysis | Year: 2012
A wavelet-based approach to test whether contagion occurred during the US subprime crisis of 2007 is proposed. After separately identifying contagion and interdependence through wavelet decomposition of the original returns series, the presence of contagion is assessed using a simple graphical test based on non-overlapping confidence intervals of estimated wavelet coefficients in crisis and non-crisis periods. The results indicate that all stock markets have been affected by the US subprime crisis and that Brazil and Japan are the only countries in which contagion is observed at all scales. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.