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George A.,MES Dental College | Mani V.,Mar Baselios Dental College | Noufal A.,MES Dental College
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2014

Despite the fact that a biological classification of congenital vascular tumors and malformations was first published in 1982 by Mulliken and Glowacki, significant confusion still prevails due to the indiscriminate and interchangeable use of the terms hemangioma and vascular malformation. Hemangiomas are true neoplasms of endothelial cells and should be differentiated from vascular malformations which are localized defects of vascular morphogenesis. On an analysis of various scientific articles and latest edition of medical text books an inappropriate use of various terms for vascular lesions was found, contributing further towards the confusion. The widely accepted International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification differentiates lesions with proliferative endothelium from lesions with structural anomalies and has been very helpful in standardizing the terminologies. In addition to overcoming obstacles in communication when describing a vascular lesion, it is important that we adhere to the correct terminology, as the therapeutic guidelines, management and follow-up of these lesions differ. Source


George A.,Mar Baselios Dental College | Ranganathan K.,Ragas Dental College | Rao U.K.,Ragas Dental College
Cancer Biomarkers | Year: 2010

Introduction: Oral Cancer (OC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, while being the most common cancer among Indian males and the third most common cause of their deaths. 70-94% of all the malignancies arising within the oral cavity are oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Researches show that altered expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may have a vital role in regulating the tumor microenvironment of head and neck carcinomas. Aim: To evaluate the expression of MMP-1 in histopathologically different grades of OSCC, to evaluate its expression in normal buccal mucosa (NBM), and to compare the expressions between these two groups, using the streptavidin horseradish peroxidase biotin labeled immuno-histochemistry (IHC) technique. Result: 100% of OSCC showed cytoplasmic immune reactivity for MMP-1 in the epithelial and connective tissue cells. Their expression was elevated as the histopathological grade differed from well to poorly differentiated. 100% of epithelial cells and 80% of connective tissue of NBM expressed MMP-1.The immune reactivity was significantly over-expressed in OSCC in comparison to NBM. Conclusion: Evidence indicates that the elevated MMP-1 protein expression is associated with higher histopathological grade of OSCC. NBM express MMP-1 diffusely and weakly. MMP-1 immune reactivity increases as OC progresses from NBM to well to poorly differentiated OSCC. © 2010 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved. Source


Paulose J.,Mar Baselios Dental College
Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research | Year: 2014

AIM: The purpose of the study was to compare the force delivery and force decay property of pigmented and non-pigmented elastomeric chains, widely used in orthodontic practice.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Force delivered by the samples consisting of pigmented and non-pigmented elastomeric chains obtained from 3 manufacturers were tested at 3 time intervals (as received, after 24 hours and 21 days of stretching) to measure the force delivered by the test samples, as well as the force decay over time.RESULTS: The force delivered by the non-pigmented samples was significantly greater than the pigmented ones at all 3 time intervals irrespective of the brand. Force decay was more significant in case of pigmented samples. Force decay was greater noticed in first 24 hours of testing and a gradual decrease in force was observed from 24 hours to 21 days in all test samples irrespective of the brand or color.CONCLUSION: Non-pigmented elastomeric chains exhibited better force delivery and less force decay percentage when compared to pigmented chains. Though colored elastomeric chains are widely used in present day orthodontic practice to satisfy the younger age group patients, the study ascertains the prudential use of pigmented and non-pigmented chains for efficient and faster orthodontic treatment. Source


Salil G.,Kerala University | Salil G.,Mar Baselios Dental College | Nevin K.G.,Kerala University | Nevin K.G.,Sree Narayana Guru Institute of Science and Technology | Rajamohan T.,Kerala University
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012

Background: Coconut kernel protein (CKP) has been reported to contain significant amounts of L-arginine. Its potential effect on glucose homeostasis, possibly through the nitric oxide synthase (NO) pathway, was therefore investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal dose of alloxan (150 mg kg -1 body weight). Experimental rats were grouped as follows: Group I, normal control; Group II, diabetic control; Group III, diabetic + CKP; Group IV, diabetic + L-arginine; Group V, diabetic + L-arginine + L-N G-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Purified CKP isolated from dried coconut kernel and L-arginine was administered to rats along with a semi-synthetic diet for 45 days. L-NAME (0.5 mg kg -1 body weight) was given to Group V animals. After the experimental period, serum glucose, insulin, activities of liver nitric oxide synthase and arginase, liver glycogen levels and histopathology of the pancreas were evaluated. Results: Serum glucose, insulin and antioxidant enzyme activities and liver glycogen levels were found to be restored to basal levels in CKP-fed rats. Decreased arginase and increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities were found in CKP- and arginine-fed rats. L-NAME treatment showed a partial effect on these parameters. Histopathology revealed that CKP and L-arginine feeding reduced the diabetes-related pancreatic damage in treated rats compared to the diabetic control. Conclusion: The results observed in this study indicate that the potential antidiabetic activity of CKP may be through an arginine-NO pathway leading to pancreatic beta cell regeneration. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry. Source


Salil G.,Kerala University | Salil G.,Mar Baselios Dental College | Nevin K.G.,Kerala University | Nevin K.G.,Sree Narayana Guru Institute of Science and Technology | Rajamohan T.,Kerala University
Mediterranean Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism | Year: 2012

The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of arginine-rich coconut kernel protein (CKP) on alloxan-induced diabetes in comparison with L-arginine and an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide. 1-month-old 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 130-150 g, were randomly divided into five groups: group I-normal control, group II-diabetic control, group III-diabetic + CKP, group IV-diabetic + L-arginine, group V-diabetic + glibenclamide (0.6 mg/100 g body weight). The rats were induced diabetes by injecting a single dose of alloxan (150 mg/ 100 g body weight) intraperitoneally. After the experimental period, various parameters were analyzed. The results showed that diabetic rats treated with CKP, arginine, and glibenclamide reduced the serum glucose and had no significant effect on total serum protein content compared to diabetic control. Serum urea level was found to be comparatively reduced in arginine-, CKP-, and glibenclamide- treated rats. Toxicological analysis showed that arginine, CKP, and glibenclamide delivered to diabetic rats significantly reduced the SGOT, SGPT and ALP activities to the basal level. Histopathological analysis also showed a comparable reversible effect of CKP on alloxan-induced pancreatic damage with respect to arginine and glibenclamide- treated rats. These results clearly indicate the nontoxic and antidiabetic properties of CKP, possibly mediated through arginine. © Springer-Verlag 2012. Source

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