PubMed | Mar Baselios Dental College and Saveetha Dental College Chennai
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journal of contemporary dental practice | Year: 2016
Recent metallurgical research and advancement in material science has benefited orthodontists in the selection of an appropriate wire size and alloy type, which is necessary to provide an optimum and predictable treatment results. The purpose of the study was to clinically evaluate and compare the surface characteristics of 16 x 22 stainless steel, Titanium molybdenum alloy, timolium, and titanium-niobium before and after placing them in a patients mouth for 3 months using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).The total sample size was 40, which were divided into four groups (group 1 - stainless steel wires, 10 samples, group 2 - TMA wires, 10 samples, group 3 - timolium wires, 10 samples, and group 4 - titanium-niobium wires, 10 samples), and these were further subdivided into 5 each. The first subgroup of five samples was placed in the patients mouth and was evaluated under SEM, and another subgroup of five samples was directly subjected to the SEM.Scanning electron microscopic evaluation of surface characteristics of unused 16 x 22 rectangular stainless steel wire under 500 x magnification showed an overall smooth surface. Stainless steel wire samples placed in the patients mouth showed black hazy patches, which may be interoperated as areas of stress. TMA unused wires showed multiple small voids of areas and small craters with fewer elevated regions. The TMA wire samples placed in the patients mouth showed black hazy patches and prominent ridges, making the wire rougher. Timolium unused archwires showed heavy roughness and voids, whereas wires tested in the patients mouth showed homogeneous distribution of deep cracks and craters. Unused titanium-niobium archwires showed uniform prominent striations and ridges with occasional voids, whereas wires used in the patients mouth showed prominent huge voids that could be interpreted as maximum stress areas.Stainless steel (group 1) used and unused wires showed smooth surface characteristics when compared with all the other three groups followed by timolium, which was superior to titanium-niobium wires and TMA wires.Timolium wires are superior to titanium-niobium wires and TMA wires.
PubMed | Mar Baselios Dental College, Sree Mookambika Institute of Dental science and Malabar Dental College and Research Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of Indian Prosthodontic Society | Year: 2016
Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) is a medical imaging technique of X-ray computed tomography where the X-rays are divergent, forming a cone. CBCT systems have been designed for imaging hard tissues of the maxillofacial region. The increasing availability of this technology provides the dental clinician with an imaging modality capable of providing a three-dimensional representation of the maxillofacial skeleton with minimal distortion. This article is intended to elaborate and enunciate on the various applications and benefits of CBCT, in the realm of maxillofacial prosthodontics, over and beyond its obvious benefits in the rehabilitation of patients with implants. With the onus of meticulous reconstruction of near ideal occlusion resting on the prosthodontist, CBCT provides a unique imaging option, which can be a boon in various aspects of prosthodontic practice - from imaging of the temporomandibular joint for accurate movement simulation, to template assisted maxillofacial reconstruction or even over denture therapy. CBCT could play a crucial role in lessening the burden of a hectic prosthodontic routine for the clinician and critically contribute to accurate and effective treatment for the patient. Apart from the authors clinical experiences shared here, a web-based search for relevant articles in this specific area of interest was also conducted. The selected articles were critically reviewed and the data acquired were systematically compiled.
Salil G.,Kerala University |
Salil G.,Mar Baselios Dental College |
Nevin K.G.,Kerala University |
Nevin K.G.,Sree Narayana Guru Institute of Science and Technology |
Rajamohan T.,Kerala University
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2012
Background: Coconut kernel protein (CKP) has been reported to contain significant amounts of L-arginine. Its potential effect on glucose homeostasis, possibly through the nitric oxide synthase (NO) pathway, was therefore investigated in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal dose of alloxan (150 mg kg -1 body weight). Experimental rats were grouped as follows: Group I, normal control; Group II, diabetic control; Group III, diabetic + CKP; Group IV, diabetic + L-arginine; Group V, diabetic + L-arginine + L-N G-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Purified CKP isolated from dried coconut kernel and L-arginine was administered to rats along with a semi-synthetic diet for 45 days. L-NAME (0.5 mg kg -1 body weight) was given to Group V animals. After the experimental period, serum glucose, insulin, activities of liver nitric oxide synthase and arginase, liver glycogen levels and histopathology of the pancreas were evaluated. Results: Serum glucose, insulin and antioxidant enzyme activities and liver glycogen levels were found to be restored to basal levels in CKP-fed rats. Decreased arginase and increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities were found in CKP- and arginine-fed rats. L-NAME treatment showed a partial effect on these parameters. Histopathology revealed that CKP and L-arginine feeding reduced the diabetes-related pancreatic damage in treated rats compared to the diabetic control. Conclusion: The results observed in this study indicate that the potential antidiabetic activity of CKP may be through an arginine-NO pathway leading to pancreatic beta cell regeneration. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
George A.,Mar Baselios Dental College |
Ranganathan K.,Ragas Dental College |
Rao U.K.,Ragas Dental College
Cancer Biomarkers | Year: 2010
Introduction: Oral Cancer (OC) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide, while being the most common cancer among Indian males and the third most common cause of their deaths. 70-94% of all the malignancies arising within the oral cavity are oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). Researches show that altered expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may have a vital role in regulating the tumor microenvironment of head and neck carcinomas. Aim: To evaluate the expression of MMP-1 in histopathologically different grades of OSCC, to evaluate its expression in normal buccal mucosa (NBM), and to compare the expressions between these two groups, using the streptavidin horseradish peroxidase biotin labeled immuno-histochemistry (IHC) technique. Result: 100% of OSCC showed cytoplasmic immune reactivity for MMP-1 in the epithelial and connective tissue cells. Their expression was elevated as the histopathological grade differed from well to poorly differentiated. 100% of epithelial cells and 80% of connective tissue of NBM expressed MMP-1.The immune reactivity was significantly over-expressed in OSCC in comparison to NBM. Conclusion: Evidence indicates that the elevated MMP-1 protein expression is associated with higher histopathological grade of OSCC. NBM express MMP-1 diffusely and weakly. MMP-1 immune reactivity increases as OC progresses from NBM to well to poorly differentiated OSCC. © 2010 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.
George A.,MES Dental College |
Mani V.,Mar Baselios Dental College |
Noufal A.,MES Dental College
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2014
Despite the fact that a biological classification of congenital vascular tumors and malformations was first published in 1982 by Mulliken and Glowacki, significant confusion still prevails due to the indiscriminate and interchangeable use of the terms hemangioma and vascular malformation. Hemangiomas are true neoplasms of endothelial cells and should be differentiated from vascular malformations which are localized defects of vascular morphogenesis. On an analysis of various scientific articles and latest edition of medical text books an inappropriate use of various terms for vascular lesions was found, contributing further towards the confusion. The widely accepted International Society for the Study of Vascular Anomalies (ISSVA) classification differentiates lesions with proliferative endothelium from lesions with structural anomalies and has been very helpful in standardizing the terminologies. In addition to overcoming obstacles in communication when describing a vascular lesion, it is important that we adhere to the correct terminology, as the therapeutic guidelines, management and follow-up of these lesions differ.
Satheeshkumar P.S.,Mar Baselios Dental College |
Mohan M.P.,Mar Baselios Dental College |
Jacob J.,Mar Baselios Dental College
Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology | Year: 2014
Restricted mouth opening (RMO) and trismus are terms commonly used in oral oncology in instances where there is difficulty in mouth opening. The term trismus in oral oncology is mainly used to indicate the radiation-induced fibrosis of the muscles of mastication. The treatment given for RMO as reported in the literature is given for muscular dysfunction trismus, whereas RMO in oral oncology can occur owing to various reasons other than muscular dysfunction. RMO occurs in various conditions of the oral cavity; in posterior pharyngeal infection, where it is termed reflectory trismus; in oral submucous fibrosis; in oral mucosal disorders; in the use of certain drugs; and in minor dental procedures of the posterior oral cavity. The usage of the term trismus in all RMO cases would complicate the treatment; thus, the word should not be used in all RMO cases. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Paulose J.,Mar Baselios Dental College
Indian journal of dental research : official publication of Indian Society for Dental Research | Year: 2014
AIM: The purpose of the study was to compare the force delivery and force decay property of pigmented and non-pigmented elastomeric chains, widely used in orthodontic practice.MATERIALS AND METHODS: Force delivered by the samples consisting of pigmented and non-pigmented elastomeric chains obtained from 3 manufacturers were tested at 3 time intervals (as received, after 24 hours and 21 days of stretching) to measure the force delivered by the test samples, as well as the force decay over time.RESULTS: The force delivered by the non-pigmented samples was significantly greater than the pigmented ones at all 3 time intervals irrespective of the brand. Force decay was more significant in case of pigmented samples. Force decay was greater noticed in first 24 hours of testing and a gradual decrease in force was observed from 24 hours to 21 days in all test samples irrespective of the brand or color.CONCLUSION: Non-pigmented elastomeric chains exhibited better force delivery and less force decay percentage when compared to pigmented chains. Though colored elastomeric chains are widely used in present day orthodontic practice to satisfy the younger age group patients, the study ascertains the prudential use of pigmented and non-pigmented chains for efficient and faster orthodontic treatment.
Sreenivasan B.S.,Mar Baselios Dental College |
Ambooken M.,Mar Baselios Dental College |
Radhakrishna M.,Mar Baselios Dental College |
Sebastian J.,Mar Baselios Dental College
Iranian Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2015
Epitheloid hemangioendothelioma (EHE) is an uncommon angiocentric neoplasm of intermediate malignant potential. This tumor is frequently seen in the lungs and liver, but its presentation in the oral cavity is rare. In the oral cavity, gingival region is the common sites of occurrence. We report a rare case of epitheloid hemangioendothelioma in a 48-year-old male, presenting as a growth in the upper anterior gingiva of five months duration along with a review of its clinicopathological and immunohistochemical characteristics. © 2015, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. All right resrved.
George A.,Mar Baselios Dental College |
Mani V.,Mar Baselios Dental College
Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology | Year: 2011
Primary neoplasms of the skeleton are rare, accounting for 0.2% of overall human tumor burden. Osteosarcoma (OS) accounts for 15-35% of all primary bone tumors, while gnathic osteosarcomas (GOS) represent 4-8% of all osteosarcomas. GOS shows a predilection for men, a peak incidence of 33 years, and affects the mandible more than the maxilla. We review the scientific literature for a better understanding of the clinical, radiographic, and histopathological features of GOS, along with its etiology, staging, treatment protocol, prognosis, and survival. Evidence from molecular research suggests that it is a differentiation disease that disrupts osteoblasts differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells. The classical radiographic finding of a "sunburst" appearance is appreciated only in 50% of GOS. The universally accepted staging system is not commonly used due to the rarity with which they metastasize to the regional lymph nodes. A number of distinct histopathological subtypes have been described, of which osteoblastic GOS are most common. The treatment protocol is multimodal consisting of preoperative chemotherapy followed by surgery and postoperative chemotherapy, and has a 60-70% five-year survival rate. We present two case reports of osteosarcoma involving the maxillary that were initially misdiagnosed as peripheral giant cell granuloma and osteoma of the maxilla, respectively. These case reports demonstrate the diverse clinical, radiographic, and histopathological features that can be encountered in GOS.
PubMed | Mar Baselios Dental College
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of clinical and diagnostic research : JCDR | Year: 2016
The use of adjuncts like chlorhexidine local delivery and diode laser decontamination have been found to improve the clinical outcomes of scaling and root planing in non-surgical periodontal therapy in patients with chronic periodontitis.To evaluate the effects of diode laser and chlorhexidine chip as adjuncts to scaling and root planing in the management of chronic periodontitis. The objective is to evaluate the outcome of chlorhexidine chip and diode laser as adjuncts to scaling and root planing on clinical parameters like Plaque Index, Gingival Index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level.Department of Periodontics. Randomized clinical trial with split mouth design.Fifteen chronic periodontitis patients having a probing pocket depth of 5mm-7mm on at least one interproximal site in each quadrant of the mouth were included in the study. After initial treatment, four sites in each patient were randomly subjected to scaling and root planing (control), chlorhexidine chip application (CHX chip group), diode laser (810 nm) decontamination (Diode laser group) or combination of both (Diode laser and chip group). Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), probing pocket depth (PPD) and clinical attachment level (CAL) were assessed at baseline, one month and three months.Results were statistically analysed using paired T test, one-way ANOVA, Tukeys HSD test and repeated measure ANOVA.Post-treatment, the test and control sites showed a statistically significant reduction in PI, GI, PPD, and CAL. After three months, a mean PPD reduction of 1.470.52 mm in control group, 1.400.83 mm in diode laser group, 2.670.62 mm in CHX group, and 2.80 0.77 mm in combination group was seen. The mean gain in CAL were 1.470.52 mm in the control group, 1.400.83 mm in diode laser group, 2.67 0.49 mm in CHX group and 2.67 0.82 mm in combination group respectively. The differences in PPD reduction and CAL gain between control group and CHX chip and combination groups were statistically significant (p<0.05) at three months, whereas, the diode laser group did not show any significant difference from the control group.Chlorhexidine local delivery alone or in combination with diode laser decontamination is effective in reducing probing pocket depth and improving clinical attachment levels when used as adjuncts to scaling and root planing in non-surgical periodontal therapy of patients with chronic periodontitis.