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Maputo, Mozambique

Lyon C.B.,Vanderbilt University | Merchant A.I.,Vanderbilt University | Schwalbach T.,Eduardo Mondlane University | Pinto E.F.V.,Maputo Central Hospital | And 2 more authors.
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2016

Background: The World Bank and Lancet Commission in 2015 have prioritized surgery in Low-Income Countries (LIC) and Lower-Middle Income Countries (LMICs). This is consistent with the shift in the global burden of disease from communicable to noncommunicable diseases over the past 20 years. Essential surgery must be performed safely, with adequate anesthesia monitoring and intervention. Unfortunately, a huge barrier to providing safe surgery includes the paucity of an anesthesia workforce.1 In this study, we qualitatively evaluated the anesthesia capacity of Mozambique, a LIC in Africa with limited access to anesthesia and safe surgical care. Country-based solutions are suggested that can expand to other LIC and LMICs. Methods: A comprehensive review of the Mozambique anesthesia system was conducted through interviews with personnel in the Ministry of Health (MOH), a school of medicine, a public central referral hospital, a general first referral hospital, a private care hospital, and leaders in the physician anesthesia community. Personnel databases were acquired from the MOH and Maputo Central Hospital. Results: Quantitative results reveal minimal anesthesia capacity (290 anesthesia providers for a population of >25 million or 0.01:10,000). The majority of physician anesthesiologists practice in urban settings, and many work in the private sector. There is minimal capacity for growth given only 1 Mozambique anesthesia residency with inadequate resources. The most commonly perceived barriers to safe anesthesia in this critical shortage are lack of teachers, lack of medical student interest in and exposure to anesthesia, need for more schools, low allocation to anesthesia from the list of available specialist prospects by MOH, and low public payments to anesthesiologists. Qualitative results show assets of a good health system design, a supportive environment for learning in the residency, improvement in anesthetic care in past decades, and a desire for more educational opportunities and teachers. Conclusions: Mozambique has a strong health system design but few resources for surgery and safe anesthesia. At present, similar to other LICs, human resources, access to essential medicines, and safety monitoring limit safe anesthesia in Mozambique. © 2016 International Anesthesia Research Society. Source

Carreira H.,University of Porto | Lorenzoni C.,Eduardo Mondlane University | Carrilho C.,Eduardo Mondlane University | Ferro J.,Beira Central Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Pediatric Hematology and Oncology | Year: 2014

The existing data provide little detail about the epidemiology of pediatric cancers in Mozambique. We aimed at characterizing the spectrum of pediatric cancers (0-14 years) diagnosed in Mozambique in two different calendar periods. Data were obtained from the Pathology Department of the Maputo Central Hospital (DP-HCM) (1999-2000 and 2009-2010), which receives virtually all samples for histopathological diagnosis in Maputo, with the exception of leukemia, and from the population-based Cancer Registry of Beira (2009-2010). In 1999-2000, the DP-HCM diagnosed 61 cancers. Burkitt lymphoma, malignant bone tumors, and rhabdomyosarcomas accounted for 24.6%, 11.5%, and 9.8% of all cases, respectively. In 2009-2010, the number of cancers increased to 150, reflecting a two- to threefold increase in the proportion of Kaposi sarcomas, non-Hodgkin lymphomas, nephroblastomas, and neuroblastomas. In 2009-2010, the Cancer Registry of Beira registered 34 cases, corresponding to an incidence rate of 9.7/100,000 inhabitants in this age group; Kaposi sarcomas, lymphomas, retinoblastomas, and nephroblastomas accounted for 29.4%, 23.5%, 8.8%, and 8.8% of all cases, respectively. These data show that pediatric cancers account for an appreciable burden in Mozambique, probably reflecting a high frequency of HIV-associated cancers and improved access to diagnosis, and highlight the potential for improving surveillance in this low resource setting. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. Source

von Delft A.,TB Proof | von Delft A.,University of Cape Town | Dramowski A.,TB Proof | Dramowski A.,University of Cape Town | And 26 more authors.
International Journal of Infectious Diseases | Year: 2015

Dr Thato Mosidi never expected to be diagnosed with tuberculosis (TB), despite widely prevalent exposure and very limited infection control measures. The life-threatening diagnosis of primary extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) came as an even greater shock. The inconvenient truth is that, rather than being protected, Dr Mosidi and thousands of her healthcare colleagues are at an increased risk of TB and especially drug-resistant TB. In this viewpoint paper we debunk the widely held false belief that healthcare workers are somehow immune to TB disease (TB-proof) and explore some of the key factors contributing to the pervasive stigmatization and subsequent non-disclosure of occupational TB. Our front-line workers are some of the first to suffer the consequences of a progressively more resistant and fatal TB epidemic, and urgent interventions are needed to ensure the safety and continued availability of these precious healthcare resources. These include the rapid development and scale-up of improved diagnostic and treatment options, strengthened infection control measures, and focused interventions to tackle stigma and discrimination in all its forms. We call our colleagues to action to protect themselves and those they care for. © 2014 The Authors. Source

Peleteiro B.,University of Porto | Barros R.,University of Porto | Carrilho C.,Eduardo Mondlane University | Artiaga J.,Eduardo Mondlane University | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2012

As CDX2 expression precedes the occurrence of gastric preneoplastic lesions in the intestinal differentiation pathway, study of these steps of gastric carcinogenesis may contribute toward understanding the early effects of gastric cancer determinants. Our aim was to quantify the association between Helicobacter pylori infection and other environmental factors and the gastric expression of CDX2. Dyspeptic patients undergoing an upper digestive endoscopy (Gastroenterology Department, Maputo Central Hospital) were consecutively invited to participate in this study and classified as having normal stomach/chronic nonatrophic gastritis (NS/CNAG), chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), or intestinal metaplasia (IM). For all patients with CAG or IM and a subsample of NS/CNAG patients (sex-matched and age-matched, 1:2), H. pylori infection and CDX2 gene expression were assessed by histology and PCR and by immunohistochemistry, respectively. Age-adjusted, sex-adjusted, education-adjusted, and H. pylori infection-adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were computed. CDX2 expression was observed in 56 NS/CNAG (49.1%), 39 CAG (86.7%), and all IM patients (n=12). It was more frequent among the H. pylori-infected patients (OR=2.26, 95% CI: 1.00-5.15). Infection with high-virulence strains was associated with CDX2 expression in patients with CAG (cagA+ OR=3.20, 95% CI: 1.35-7.52) and IM (vacA m1, OR=5.86, 95% CI: 1.08-31.62). Patients with a lower frequency of vegetable consumption had a higher risk of marked CDX2 expression (OR=3.64, 95% CI: 1.02-12.95). The virulence of the infecting strains and vegetable consumption were associated with CDX2 expression and may play a role in the progression to more advanced lesions. © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

David E.,Maputo Central Hospital | Machungo F.,Maputo Central Hospital | Zanconato G.,University of Verona | Cavaliere E.,University of Verona | And 4 more authors.
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2014

Background: Life-threatening events during pregnancy are currently used as a measure to assess quality of obstetric care. The aim of this study is to assess prevalence of near miss cases and maternal deaths, to elucidate the causes and to analyze avoidable factors based upon the three-delays approach in southern Mozambique. Methods: Near miss cases comprised five categories: eclampsia, severe hemorrhage, severe sepsis, uterine rupture and severe malaria. Pregnant women surviving the event were interviewed during a 5-month period within five health facilities offering comprehensive emergency obstetric care in Maputo City and Province. Family members gave additional information and were interviewed in case of the patient's death. Results: Out of 27,916 live births, 564 near miss cases and 71 maternal deaths were identified, giving a total maternal near miss ratio of 20/1,000 live births and maternal mortality ratio of 254/100,000 live births, respectively. Near miss fatality rate was 11.2%. Among near miss cases hemorrhage accounted for the most common event (58.0%), followed by eclampsia (35.5%); HIV seroprevalence was 22.3%. Inappropriate attendance in antenatal care services (21.1%), late or wrong diagnosis (12.6%), inadequate management immediately after delivery (9.6%), no monitoring of blood pressure and other vital signs (9.2%) were the most prevalent factors contributing to the severe morbidity under study. Third delay was identified in 69.7% of the interviews. In more than one fourth of near miss cases treatment was not started immediately. Lack of blood derivates and unavailable operating room were reported in 42.0% and 35.0%, respectively. Conclusions: Near miss cases were frequent and related to delays in reaching and receiving adequate care. First and third type of delay contributed significantly to the number of maternal near miss cases and deaths. Maternal health policies need to be concerned not only with averting the loss of life, but also with ameliorating care of severe maternal complications at all levels including primary care. Sexual and reproductive health services for adolescents should be prioritized to prevent adverse outcomes. © David et al. Source

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