Reutlingen, Germany
Reutlingen, Germany

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Misic B.,Jülich Research Center | Pieters B.E.,Jülich Research Center | Schweitzer U.,Manz AG | Gerber A.,Jülich Research Center | Rau U.,Jülich Research Center
IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics | Year: 2015

We study the appearance of both scribing failures and Cu-rich debris, formed during Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) co-evaporation, in electroluminescence (EL) and dark lock-in thermography (DLIT) images. We observe that for most of the defect types, there is a characteristic appearance of EL and DLIT that allows reliable diagnostics. We also point to defect scenarios where different defects appear similar. With regard to scribing defects, we find that the reliability of defect identification increases with the length of the line interruption, while for Cu-rich debris, we find that the geometrical size and position within the cell significantly determine its defect appearance and, therefore, the ability to diagnose it. © 2011-2012 IEEE.


Grant
Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: ENERGY-2007-2.1-08 | Award Amount: 5.99M | Year: 2008

Laser processes provide manufacturing solutions with minimum mechanical and thermal influence on the processed product due to their selective energy control and deposition and generally high processing speed. With this advantages they are already well established for some processing steps in the current production of solar cells. High speed laser ablation is used for the isolation of the emitter front side from the backside of a solar cell, Laser melting is used to form backside contacts and laser drilling has been proven as a versatile tool for drilling silicon wafers for metal wrap through backside contacts. All these processes are currently performed with standard Q-switch-Nd:YAG-Lasers with pulse durations of up to 100 ns which provide process characteristics and results being far away from the technical and physical limits of possible laser processes. New laser sources such as ultra short pulsed lasers, time domain optimized lasers, wavelength adapted lasers and ultra compact modular laser sources have been recently developed and provide a much better matching of laser parameters to the required processing characteristics. With these new laser sources flexible manufacturing steps can be realized leading to higher productivity and production costs as well as to higher efficiency of solar cells and modules and even new cell concepts. Within a consortium from laser manufacturers, system suppliers, research institutes and end users the technical and physical potential of high quality and process tailored laser sources will be demonstrated throughout the project and evaluated for current and future photovoltaic manufacturing processes.


Dimmler B.,Manz AG
Semiconductors and Semimetals | Year: 2014

After 35 years of continuous research and development, thin-film photovoltaic materials like amorphous silicon in various combinations and the compound polycrystalline semiconductors Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) and CdTe have shown continuous progress and all of them have started major industrial activities since the beginning of this century. Fundamental R&D has shown exciting progress in recent years for CIGS and CdTe, whereas amorphous silicon laboratory solar cell efficiencies are still below 15%, despite 10 years of intensive research activities worldwide. CIGS champion efficiencies approaching 21% have been shown by several groups and CdTe recently also showed champion cell efficiencies in the same range. Both materials have already shown cost leadership in few large volume production lines and have the ability to reach production costs well below 0.4. US$/W in medium term. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Schmieder B.,Manz AG
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

To serve the high need of lithium-ion secondary batteries of the automobile industry in the next ten years it is necessary to establish highly reliable, fast and non abrasive machining processes. In previous works [1] it was shown that high cutting speeds with several meters per second are achievable. For this, mainly high power single mode fibre lasers with up to several kilo watts were used. Since lithium-ion batteries are very fragile electro chemical systems, the cutting speed is not the only thing important. To guarantee a high cycling stability and a long calendrical life time the edge quality and the heat affected zone (HAZ) are equally important. Therefore, this paper tries to establish an analytical model for the geometry of the cutting edge based on the ablation thresholds of the different materials. It also deals with the composition of the HAZ in dependence of the pulse length, generated by laser remote cutting with pulsed fibre laser. The characterisation of the HAZ was done by optical microscopy, SEM, EDX and Raman microscopy. © 2012 SPIE.


Baier T.,Manz AG | Glaeser G.,Manz AG | Wanka H.,Manz AG
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

In this paper we present a simple technique for approximating laser process parameters needed for laser processing of crystalline silicon solar cells. The calculation computes the changes of silicon material properties during the time of laser-material interaction. As the laser pulse energy modifies optical and thermal properties of silicon, the chronological segmentation illustrates the temperature rise within the irradiated volume and indicates the time needed for melting or evaporation. Depending on the desired material modification, commercially available laser sources are analyzed regarding their process suitability. Simulating the laser system performance reveals its theoretical output and determines its expected efficiency. Simulations in this paper correlate well to experimental data and are done for different fields of interest: a) ablation rate during laser drilling for EWT cells, using IR wavelengths in the order of 1 μs b) depth and width of laser grooves as used for Laser Grooved Buried Contact cells (LGBC) or edge isolation, using wavelengths in the IR and VIS c) process windows during selective laser doping with 532 nm using PSG as sole phosphorous source d) laser parameters needed for Laser-Fired Contacts (LFC). © 2012 SPIE.


Hess A.,University of Stuttgart | Weber R.,University of Stuttgart | Graf T.,University of Stuttgart | Schafer M.,Manz AG | Thiel C.,University of Stuttgart
30th International Congress on Applications of Lasers and Electro-Optics, ICALEO 2011 | Year: 2011

High average laser power very often causes thermal beam distortion inside the transmitting optical components. This effect is especially pronounced in contaminated optics. It results in a significant decrease of the beam quality and a decrease of the effective focal length, also referred to as focus shift. Both effects directly modify the laser spot size on the work piece which is very critical for most laser material processing applications. Moreover beam quality and focus shift measurements are time consuming and require expensive equipment, which furthermore involves additional thermally loaded optics. This paper describes a novel method which uses the welding process itself to quantitatively determine the focus shift. To this end a dedicated "reference process" is defined, which takes benefit of the beam diameter dependence of the deep-penetration welding threshold. After a defined time of preheating to thermally load the optics, a weld trace of a few centimeters is generated in a sample applying a laser power ramp. The position of the transition from heat-conduction welding to deeppenetration welding, which is easily noticeable by visual inspection of the seam width on the workpiece surface, is measured with a simple caliper. We show that with this information of four different welds with suitably varying laser parameters the focus shift can easily be calculated with appropriate accuracy.


Dimmler B.,Manz AG
Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference | Year: 2012

CIGS and CdTe industrial activities started at the beginning of this century after 20 years of comparatively low R&D intensity when contrasted to other PV materials. Fundamental R&D has shown good progress in recent years, concentrated more on CIGS and less on CdTe. Champion efficiencies around and slightly beyond 20% have been shown for CIGS by several groups; thus CIGS has reached efficiency levels equal to multicrystalline Silicon. After years of stagnation, CdTe could recently also show new champion efficiencies well beyond 17%; still about 3% less than CIGS. High volume manufacturing has started within the last decade in a fast growing PV market. Nevertheless both need intensive R&D to develop further innovations and to realize successful transfer into high volume manufacturing to stay competitive. Both materials have the ability to approach production costs well below 0.4 US-$/W in the long term and to become the main material in the PV market. © 2012 IEEE.


Schmieder B.,Manz AG
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2015

In Lithium-Ion battery production many different active material coatings are used to serve the individual needs of the final product. Furthermore laser processing becomes the method of choice in the production to allow a maximum degree of freedom and reduce tooling costs. The used electrode coatings and its different components highly influence the laser process and its results in terms of quality and efficiency. To achieve a better understanding of the ablation mechanism high speed video recording was used to allow a more detailed observation of the cutting and ablation mechanism, respectively. Based on these insights an analytical model was created and verified by time resolved shadowgraph imaging and experimental determined laser ablation thresholds © 2015 SPIE.


Patent
Manz Ag | Date: 2015-08-20

A method for producing a casing for a battery cell that features a cell body with an electrode stack of several alternately arranged anodes and cathodes separated using separators includes that a coating, which mechanically protects the cell body, is at least sectionally applied onto the finished cell body and forms the casing.


A transporting apparatus for simultaneously transporting at least two substrates into a substrate-treatment apparatus to be treated in a vacuum-treatment apparatus has at least two carrier apparatuses mounted for rotation in relation to a common axis and offset axially in relation to one another. At least one retaining frame configured for supporting at least one substrate is arranged on each of the two carrier apparatuses. Each retaining frame is configured to be shifted, by rotary movement of the two carrier apparatuses about the common axis, into mutually opposite regions of a treatment unit with the two carrier apparatuses spaced apart axially from one another sufficiently such that the treatment unit is arranged between the two carrier apparatuses.

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