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Reutlingen, Germany

Dimmler B.,MANZ AG
Semiconductors and Semimetals | Year: 2014

After 35 years of continuous research and development, thin-film photovoltaic materials like amorphous silicon in various combinations and the compound polycrystalline semiconductors Cu(In,Ga)(Se,S)2 (CIGS) and CdTe have shown continuous progress and all of them have started major industrial activities since the beginning of this century. Fundamental R&D has shown exciting progress in recent years for CIGS and CdTe, whereas amorphous silicon laboratory solar cell efficiencies are still below 15%, despite 10 years of intensive research activities worldwide. CIGS champion efficiencies approaching 21% have been shown by several groups and CdTe recently also showed champion cell efficiencies in the same range. Both materials have already shown cost leadership in few large volume production lines and have the ability to reach production costs well below 0.4. US$/W in medium term. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source


Misic B.,Julich Research Center | Pieters B.E.,Julich Research Center | Schweitzer U.,MANZ AG | Gerber A.,Julich Research Center | Rau U.,Julich Research Center
Physica Status Solidi (A) Applications and Materials Science | Year: 2015

Intentionally implemented scribing failures in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 modules are studied using electroluminescence (EL) and dark lock-in thermography (DLIT). While the EL images do not allow a non-ambiguous defect distinction, the DLIT images reveal characteristic defect patterns for each defect type. In order to explain the DLIT defect appearance, we model and simulate the scribing defects in a network simulation model. The simulations yield characteristic current flow patterns for each scribing defect type and thus aid in the understanding and interpretation of the measurements. © 2015 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Schmieder B.,MANZ AG
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

To serve the high need of lithium-ion secondary batteries of the automobile industry in the next ten years it is necessary to establish highly reliable, fast and non abrasive machining processes. In previous works [1] it was shown that high cutting speeds with several meters per second are achievable. For this, mainly high power single mode fibre lasers with up to several kilo watts were used. Since lithium-ion batteries are very fragile electro chemical systems, the cutting speed is not the only thing important. To guarantee a high cycling stability and a long calendrical life time the edge quality and the heat affected zone (HAZ) are equally important. Therefore, this paper tries to establish an analytical model for the geometry of the cutting edge based on the ablation thresholds of the different materials. It also deals with the composition of the HAZ in dependence of the pulse length, generated by laser remote cutting with pulsed fibre laser. The characterisation of the HAZ was done by optical microscopy, SEM, EDX and Raman microscopy. © 2012 SPIE. Source


Misic B.,Julich Research Center | Pieters B.E.,Julich Research Center | Schweitzer U.,MANZ AG | Gerber A.,Julich Research Center | Rau U.,Julich Research Center
IEEE Journal of Photovoltaics | Year: 2015

We study the appearance of both scribing failures and Cu-rich debris, formed during Cu(In,Ga)Se 2 (CIGS) co-evaporation, in electroluminescence (EL) and dark lock-in thermography (DLIT) images. We observe that for most of the defect types, there is a characteristic appearance of EL and DLIT that allows reliable diagnostics. We also point to defect scenarios where different defects appear similar. With regard to scribing defects, we find that the reliability of defect identification increases with the length of the line interruption, while for Cu-rich debris, we find that the geometrical size and position within the cell significantly determine its defect appearance and, therefore, the ability to diagnose it. © 2011-2012 IEEE. Source


Dimmler B.,MANZ AG
Conference Record of the IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference | Year: 2012

CIGS and CdTe industrial activities started at the beginning of this century after 20 years of comparatively low R&D intensity when contrasted to other PV materials. Fundamental R&D has shown good progress in recent years, concentrated more on CIGS and less on CdTe. Champion efficiencies around and slightly beyond 20% have been shown for CIGS by several groups; thus CIGS has reached efficiency levels equal to multicrystalline Silicon. After years of stagnation, CdTe could recently also show new champion efficiencies well beyond 17%; still about 3% less than CIGS. High volume manufacturing has started within the last decade in a fast growing PV market. Nevertheless both need intensive R&D to develop further innovations and to realize successful transfer into high volume manufacturing to stay competitive. Both materials have the ability to approach production costs well below 0.4 US-$/W in the long term and to become the main material in the PV market. © 2012 IEEE. Source

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