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Northcott D.,Auckland University of Technology | Taulapapa T.M.,Manukau Institute of Technology
International Journal of Public Sector Management | Year: 2012

Purpose: This paper aims to examine the use of the balanced scorecard (BSC) as a performance management tool in the public sector. Drawing on a New Zealand study of local government organzations (LGOs), it seeks to identify issues and challenges in implementing the BSC in public sector contexts. Design/methodology/approach: A postal questionnaire was used to solicit public sector managers' views on the usefulness of the BSC and the factors that support or impede its implementation in practice. Follow-up interviews with selected respondents allowed for more in-depth exploration of managers' experiences of BSC use and outcomes. Findings: The findings reveal low rates of BSC adoption amongst the studied LGOs. Further, perceived BSC utility is dominated by performance measurement and reporting, while the performance management role of the BSC remains relatively under-exploited. This study identifies users' perceptions of the key challenges impeding BSC implementation in the public sector, and highlights their significance for both practice and theory. Research limitations/implications: This paper highlights the need for improved theorisation on several issues that present particular challenges in public sector BSC practice: modifying the BSC dimensions, designing measures that capture important qualitative outcomes, identifying the "customer" and/or achieving a genuine multi-stakeholder approach, and mapping BSC causality relationships. Practical implications: Improved awareness of the factors perceived to lead to successful and unsuccessful BSC implementation may enhance the uptake and utility of the BSC for measuring and managing performance in public sector organisations. Originality/value: This study examines BSC use in local government, where it has been relatively under-researched. It adds to prior studies by specifically examining the factors that support and impede the effective implementation of the BSC in public sector contexts. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.


Murphy R.S.,Manukau Institute of Technology | Wilcox S.J.,University of South Wales
Anesthesia and Analgesia | Year: 2010

IV drug delivery in intensive care often takes the form of simultaneous multiple infusions from separate infusion devices via either shared or individual fluid pathways. Because of the potency of the drugs administered and the acuity of the patients, accurate drug delivery is required. Instances of unexpected and unacceptable accuracy degradation have been reported when the equilibrium of the infusion system is disturbed. We describe a mathematical model of a simple infusion system used to investigate and verify results reported from a simple experimental multiple pump fault scenario. The results suggest that flow degradation is attributable to small changes in infusion system extracorporeal volume, referred to as "compliance." The model may, by expansion, be used to determine the nature of fluid flow within other multiple pump systems, be applied to the design of future IV systems, and explain the need for small-volume infusion systems with small mechanical compliance. Copyright © 2010 International Anesthesia Research Society.


Ahmed D.M.,Manukau Institute of Technology | Sundaram D.,University of Auckland | Piramuthu S.,University of Florida
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2010

Scenario planning is a widely accepted management process for decision support activities. Though conventional decision support systems provide a strong database, modeling and visualization capabilities for the decision maker, they do not explicitly support scenario management. We propose an integrated life cycle approach for knowledge-based scenario-driven decision support incorporating three interrelated frameworks at different abstraction levels to support this process. The macro-level knowledge-based framework guides the Meso-level Scenario-driven framework, and these two in turn guide and inform the micro-level process-oriented framework. We develop a domain independent, component-based, and layered architecture to support the scenario management process and framework. The framework and architecture are realized through a concrete prototype. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Chalmers A.,Manukau Institute of Technology | Soltic S.,Manukau Institute of Technology
Optical Engineering | Year: 2012

The authors build on previous experience in the optimization of white light sources based on combinations of known narrow-band spectra. The authors extend these concepts by using synthetic (mathematically generated) four-band spectra to study the prospects for the spectral design of future optimal light sources. The optimization is based on achieving a trade-off of the color rendering properties against the luminous efficacy of the radiation, using the differential evolution (DE) algorithm. It is shown that this trade-off is controllable through the choice of the optimization parameters, specifically the choice of terms in the optimization fitness function. Depending on the choice of the shapes for the synthetic spectral bands, the results are comparable with those achieved in earlier work on the optimization of four-band light-emitting diode (LED) spectra. However, the range of color temperatures achieved in the present study is considerably wider than was previously found for optimum four-band LED mixtures. © 2012 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).


Pan Q.W.,Manukau Institute of Technology
IEEE Radio and Wireless Symposium, RWS | Year: 2015

A wideband omnidirectional antenna, designed for mounting on vehicles and other mobile devices, covers the 1700-2700 MHz band, i.e. 45% impedance bandwidth of 1000 MHz. It has an array of two in-phase planar λ/2 dipoles that are arranged side by side and fed by a coplanar waveguide. The dipole microstrip patches are printed on a 66 mm by 28 mm, 1.6 mm thick FR-4 PCB. The in-band antenna gain is about 2.6 dBi with nearly doughnut shape radiation patterns. © 2015 IEEE.


Champiri Z.D.,University of Malaya | Shahamiri S.R.,Manukau Institute of Technology | Salim S.S.B.,University of Malaya
Expert Systems with Applications | Year: 2015

Incorporating contextual information in recommender systems is an effective approach to create more accurate and relevant recommendations. This review has been conducted to identify the contextual information and methods used for making recommendations in digital libraries as well as the way researchers understood and used relevant contextual information from the years 2001 to 2013 based on the Kitchenham systematic review methodology. The results indicated that contextual information incorporated into recommendations can be categorised into three contexts, namely users' context, document's context, and environment context. In addition, the classical approaches such as collaborative filtering were employed more than the other approaches. Researchers have understood and exploited relevant contextual information through four ways, including citation of past studies, citation of past definitions, self-definitions, and field-query researches; however, citation of the past studies has been the most popular method. This review highlights the need for more investigations on the concept of context from user viewpoint in scholarly domains. It also discusses the way a context-aware recommender system can be effectively designed and implemented in digital libraries. Additionally, a few recommendations for future investigations on scholarly recommender systems are proposed. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Soltic S.,Manukau Institute of Technology | Chalmers A.N.,Manukau Institute of Technology
Lighting Research and Technology | Year: 2012

This paper joins the quest for a white-light source based on mixtures of multiple narrow-band light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with the spectrum optimised for high radiant luminous efficacy and good colour-rendering properties. The complexity of the optimisation process increases with the number of LEDs used to create the white-light source. This paper describes an effective approach for mixing narrow-band LED spectra based on differential evolution, a simple and easy to use direct search method. Two MATLAB programs are designed allowing optimisation using the colour-rendering index and colour quality scale systems. Optimal theoretical solutions for four-LED and six-LED mixtures are analysed. © The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers 2011.


Ahmed M.D.,Manukau Institute of Technology | Sundaram D.,University of Auckland
Decision Support Systems | Year: 2012

Sustainable business management aspires towards balancing and integrating social, economic and environmental dimensions. Existing roadmaps, frameworks and systems do not comprehensively support sustainable business transformation nor do they allow decision makers to explore interrelationships and influences between the sustainability dimensions. This leads to silo-based decision making where vision and strategies are not mapped to execution, and sustainability modelling and reporting processes are uncoordinated. This research proposes and implements a generic sustainable business transformation roadmap, which is supported by a framework and architecture for integrated sustainability modelling and reporting. The implementation leverages system dynamics, workflow modelling and adaptable system concepts. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Soltic S.,Manukau Institute of Technology | Chalmers A.,Manukau Institute of Technology
Optics Express | Year: 2013

The authors build on previous experience in the optimization of white-light sources based on combinations of narrow-band spectra. They extend those concepts by using delta-function spectra to study the prospects of future optimal laser-based sources. The optimization process is based on a trade-off between the color rendering properties and the luminous efficacy of the radiation. Optimal solutions for four, five and six delta-function spectra with correlated color temperatures in the 3000 to 5500 K range are presented and analyzed. White-light sources with these properties would likely find wide acceptance in numerous lighting applications. © 2013 Optical Society of America.


Chalmers A.,Manukau Institute of Technology | Soltic S.,Manukau Institute of Technology
Advances in OptoElectronics | Year: 2010

This paper is concerned with designing light source spectra for optimum luminous efficacy and colour rendering. We demonstrate that it is possible to design light sources that can provide both good colour rendering and high luminous efficacy by combining the outputs of a number of narrowband spectral constituents. Also, the achievable results depend on the numbers and wavelengths of the different spectral bands utilized in the mixture. Practical realization of these concepts has been demonstrated in this pilot study which combines a number of simulations with tests using real LEDs (light emitting diodes). Such sources are capable of providing highly efficient lighting systems with good energy conservation potential. Further research is underway to investigate the practicalities of our proposals in relation to large-scale light source production. © 2010 Andrew Chalmers and Snjezana Soltic.

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