Reykjavík, Iceland
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Thorhallsson S.,Iceland GeoSurvey ISOR | Palsson B.,Landsvirkjun | Holmgeirsson S.,Landsvirkjun | Ingason K.,Mannvit | And 3 more authors.
Geothermics | Year: 2014

The aim of the Iceland Deep Drilling Projects (IDDP) was to drill to a depth of 4-5. km in known high-temperature areas to investigate their roots. The paper describes the design of the "generic" IDDP well and what the plans were. The challenges are to drill a large well with five cemented casing strings to 4500. m into a reservoir which can have a temperature of 400-600. °C. In 2009 well IDDP-1 was drilled according to these plans but could not reach below 2100. m due to the intersection of magma, as will be described in other papers in this special issue of Geothermics. The paper is thus for the historical record of the original design premises and intentions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Karlsdottir S.N.,Innovation Center Iceland | Karlsdottir S.N.,University of Iceland | Thorbjornsson I.O.,Innovation Center Iceland | Thorbjornsson I.O.,Reykjavik University | Sigmarsson T.,Mannvit
NACE - International Corrosion Conference Series | Year: 2013

The IDDP-1 well in the Krafla geothermal field in Iceland is the first well in the Icelandic deep drilling project. The superheated steam from the well is extremely hot (450°C) and the pressure is high (120 bar). The steam contains HCl and HF and is highly corrosive when it condenses. Different pilot studies were set up to investigate the usability of the superheated steam for power production. This included wet scrubbing equipment which, after the experiment, was inspected for corrosion and scaling. This involved visual inspection of the equipment and microstructural and chemical composition analysis of corrosion scale and scaling materials. A lump of scaling material was found in a narrow section of the scrubbing equipment, almost blocking the exit of the equipment. The water injection nozzles in the spraying chamber of the wet scrubbing equipment were free of scaling. Other parts had negligible scaling. The nickel alloy in the spraying chamber had small corrosion pits and cracks; this could possibly cause problems for a scale up that demands longer lifetime. The austenitic stainless steel used in the mixing pipe performed very well with negligible corrosion. The carbon steel pipes used in the system were corroded quite extensively. © 2013 by NACE International.

Geothermal power is electricity generated by geothermal energy of earth. Geothermal power is considered to be a sustainable, renewable source of energy. Geothermal power plants are similar to traditional power-generating stations. The components used in geothermal power generation include turbines, generators, transformers, and other standard power generating equipment. The geothermal power generation market is mainly driven by the advantages like lower emission of green house gases and favorable policies. Growing demand for electricity is another important driving factor for geothermal power market. However, some issues like limited availability of resources is expected to hamper growth of geothermal power generation industry. The global geothermal power generation market is segmented on the basis of technology and region. Based on different technology, market is segmented as dry steam, flash steam and binary cycle. The report provides a comprehensive view on the geothermal power generation market we have included a detailed company market share analysis, product portfolio of the major industry participants. To understand the competitive landscape in the market, an analysis of Porter’s Five Forces model for the geothermal power generation market has also been included. The study encompasses a market attractiveness analysis, wherein technology segments are benchmarked based on their market size, growth rate and general attractiveness. Technology segments have been analyzed based on historic, present, and future trends and the market has been estimated from 2015 to 2020 in terms of volume (installed capacity) and revenue (investments in the sector for adding capacity). Major regional segments analyzed in this study include North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and Middle East & Africa. This report also provides further bifurcation of region on the country level. Major countries analyzed in this reports are U.S., Germany, France, UK, China, Japan, India, and Brazil. Country segments in geothermal power generation have been analyzed and estimated in terms of installed capacity (MW) and actual power generation (Million kWh). Geothermal power generation market was dominated by Asia Pacific in 2014 and is expected have consistent growth in coming years. Some of the key players for global geothermal power generation market includes Enel Green Power, Ormat Technologies Inc., Energy Development Corporation, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Sumitomo Corporation, Mannvit, Contact Energy, Contact Energy, Us Geothermal Inc., Us Geothermal Inc. This report segments the global geothermal power generation market as follows:

Gislason S.R.,University of Iceland | Broecker W.S.,Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory | Gunnlaugsson E.,Reykjavik Energy | Snaebjornsdottir S.,University of Iceland | And 23 more authors.
Energy Procedia | Year: 2014

The long-term security of geologic carbon storage is critical to its success and public acceptance. Much of the security risk associated with geological carbon storage stems from its buoyancy. Gaseous and supercritical CO2 are less dense than formation waters, providing a driving force for it to escape back to the surface. This buoyancy can be eliminated by the dissolution of CO2 into water prior to, or during its injection into the subsurface. The dissolution makes it possible to inject into fractured rocks and further enhance mineral storage of CO2 especially if injected into silicate rocks rich in divalent metal cations such as basalts and ultra-mafic rocks. We have demonstrated the dissolution of CO2 into water during its injection into basalt leading to its geologic solubility storage in less than five minutes and potential geologic mineral storage within few years after injection [1-3]. The storage potential of CO2 within basaltic rocks is enormous. All the carbon released from burning of all fossil fuel on Earth, 5000 GtC, can theoretically be stored in basaltic rocks [4]. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Hauksson T.,Kemia | Markusson S.,Landsvirkjun | Einarsson K.,Landsvirkjun | Karlsdottir S.N.,Nyskopunarmiostoo Islands | And 3 more authors.
Geothermics | Year: 2014

Material tests and scrubbing experiments were carried out at the IDDP-1 well in the Krafla geothermal field in Iceland. The 450. °C superheated steam contained acid gas (approx. 90. mg/kg HCl and 7. mg/kg HF) and was highly corrosive when it condensed making it unsuitable for utilization without scrubbing. The acid gas could effectively be scrubbed from the steam with water. The steam contained gasous sulfur compond (80-100. mg/kg. S), which could only be scrubbed from the steam with alkaline water. The steam contained both silica dust and dissolved silica which was effectively washed from the steam with wet scrubbing. Experiments on corrosion and erosion resistance of metals and alloys were problematic to run because of equipment clogging by silica dust. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Sigfusson B.,Reykjavik Energy | Gislason S.R.,University of Iceland | Matter J.M.,Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory | Stute M.,Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control | Year: 2015

Long-term security is critical to the success and public acceptance of geologic carbon storage. Much of the security risk associated with geologic carbon storage stems from CO2 buoyancy. Gaseous and supercritical CO2 are less dense than formation waters providing a driving force for it to escape back to the surface via fractures, or abandoned wells. This buoyancy can be eradicated by the dissolution of CO2 into water prior to, or during its injection into the subsurface. Here we demonstrate the dissolution of CO2 into water during its injection into basalts leading directly to its geologic solubility storage. This process was verified via the successful injection of over 175t of CO2 dissolved in 5000t of water into porous rocks located 400-800m below the surface at the Hellisheidi, Iceland CarbFix injection site. Although larger volumes are required for CO2 storage via this method, because the dissolved CO2 is no longer buoyant, the storage formation does not have to be as deep as for supercritical CO2 and the cap rock integrity is less important. This increases the potential storage resource substantially compared to the current estimated storage potential of supercritical CO2. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Palsson B.,Landsvirkjun | Holmgeirsson S.,Landsvirkjun | Guomundsson T.,Landsvirkjun | Boasson H.,Mannvit | And 3 more authors.
Geothermics | Year: 2014

The first well of three proposed by the Iceland Deep Drilling Project (IDDP) was drilled in the Krafla Geothermal Field in 2008-2009 by Landsvirkjun, the National Power Company of Iceland. The well was designed to reach supercritical conditions at 4500. m, temperatures above 374. °C and pressures above 22. MPa. Drilling progress was as planned down to around 2000. m when drilling became quite challenging, including becoming stuck at 2094 and 2095. m depth, followed by twist offs and subsequent side tracking. Finally, drilling came to an end at 2096. m depth in the third leg when cuttings of fresh glass indicated the presence of a magma body at the bottom. As the well had such a rigorous well design, the steering committee of the IDDP decided to complete and flow test the well, rather than abandoning it. The well was very powerful and the project has proved to be a valuable experience for drilling supercritical wells in the future and what happens when magma is encountered. Most importantly, it has been proven that it is possible to drill and complete a well in a very hot zone and produce fluid from an environment near a magma body. If sustained long term production proves possible, the drilling of well IDDP-1 will mark a new era in power production in Krafla. © 2013.

Ingason K.,Mannvit | Kristjansson V.,Mannvit | Einarsson K.,Landsvirkjun
Geothermics | Year: 2014

The initial discharge of IDDP-1 took place in March 2010 and the well was discharged intermittently until July 2012. In the beginning a mixture of steam and water flowed from the well but soon the fluid became superheated and enthalpy gradually increased, approaching 3200. kJ/kg. The flow rate from the well was up to 50. kg/s. The design condition at well head turned out to be challenging due to high pressure, temperature, corrosion and erosion. Valves, rated for higher pressure and temperature, failed during operation. Five different designs of discharge systems were installed. The well had to be quenched when the master valves failed. Plans for its future are still being evaluated. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

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