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Lammey M.L.,Alamogordo Primate Facility | Jackson R.,Mannheimer Foundation Inc. | Ely J.J.,Alamogordo Primate Facility | Lee D.R.,University of Washington | Sleeper M.M.,University of Pennsylvania
Comparative Medicine | Year: 2011

Cardiovascular disease in general, and cardiac arrhythmias specifically, is common in great apes. However, the clinical significance of arrhythmias detected on short-duration electrocardiograms is often unclear. Here we describe the use of an implantable loop recorder to evaluate cardiac rhythms in 4 unanesthetized adult chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), 1 with a history of possible syncope and 3 with the diagnosis of multiform ventricular ectopy (ventricular premature complexes) and cardiomyopathy. The clinical significance of ventricular ectopy was defined further by using the implantable loop recorder. Arrhythmia was ruled out as a cause of collapse in the chimpanzee that presented with possible syncope because the implantable loop recorder demonstrated normal sinus rhythm during a so-called syncopal event. This description is the first report of the use of an implantable loop recorder to diagnose cardiac arrhythmias in an unanesthetized great ape species. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. Source


Bevan A.K.,Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens Hospital | Bevan A.K.,Ohio State University | Duque S.,Ohio State University | Foust K.D.,Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens Hospital | And 16 more authors.
Molecular Therapy | Year: 2011

Adeno-associated virus type 9 (AAV9) is a powerful tool for delivering genes throughout the central nervous system (CNS) following intravenous injection. Preclinical results in pediatric models of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and lysosomal storage disorders provide a compelling case for advancing AAV9 to the clinic. An important translational step is to demonstrate efficient CNS targeting in large animals at various ages. In the present study, we tested systemically injected AAV9 in cynomolgus macaques, administered at birth through 3 years of age for targeting CNS and peripheral tissues. We show that AAV9 was efficient at crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB) at all time points investigated. Transgene expression was detected primarily in glial cells throughout the brain, dorsal root ganglia neurons and motor neurons within the spinal cord, providing confidence for translation to SMA patients. Systemic injection also efficiently targeted skeletal muscle and peripheral organs. To specifically target the CNS, we explored AAV9 delivery to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). CSF injection efficiently targeted motor neurons, and restricted gene expression to the CNS, providing an alternate delivery route and potentially lower manufacturing requirements for older, larger patients. Our findings support the use of AAV9 for gene transfer to the CNS for disorders in pediatric populations. © The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy. Source


Foust K.D.,Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens Hospital | Wang X.,Wright State University | Braun L.,Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens Hospital | Bevan A.K.,Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens Hospital | And 8 more authors.
Nature Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), the most common autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease affecting children, results in impaired motor neuron function. Despite knowledge of the pathogenic role of decreased survival motor neuron (SMN) protein levels, efforts to increase SMN have not resulted in a treatment for patients. We recently demonstrated that self-complementary adeno-associated virus 9 (scAAV9) can infect ∼60% of motor neurons when injected intravenously into neonatal mice. Here we use scAAV9-mediated postnatal day 1 vascular gene delivery to replace SMN in SMA pups and rescue motor function, neuromuscular physiology and life span. Treatment on postnatal day 5 results in partial correction, whereas postnatal day 10 treatment has little effect, suggesting a developmental period in which scAAV9 therapy has maximal benefit. Notably, we also show extensive scAAV9-mediated motor neuron transduction after injection into a newborn cynomolgus macaque. This demonstration that scAAV9 traverses the blood-brain barrier in a nonhuman primate emphasizes the clinical potential of scAAV9 gene therapy for SMA. © 2010 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source


Meyer K.,Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens Hospital | Ferraiuolo L.,Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens Hospital | Schmelzer L.,Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens Hospital | Braun L.,Research Institute at Nationwide Childrens Hospital | And 13 more authors.
Molecular Therapy | Year: 2015

Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is the most frequent lethal genetic neurodegenerative disorder in infants. The disease is caused by low abundance of the survival of motor neuron (SMN) protein leading to motor neuron degeneration and progressive paralysis. We previously demonstrated that a single intravenous injection (IV) of self-complementary adeno-associated virus-9 carrying the human SMN cDNA (scAAV9-SMN) resulted in widespread transgene expression in spinal cord motor neurons in SMA mice as well as nonhuman primates and complete rescue of the disease phenotype in mice. Here, we evaluated the dosing and efficacy of scAAV9-SMN delivered directly to the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) via single injection. We found widespread transgene expression throughout the spinal cord in mice and nonhuman primates when using a 10 times lower dose compared to the IV application. Interestingly, in nonhuman primates, lower doses than in mice can be used for similar motor neuron targeting efficiency. Moreover, the transduction efficacy is further improved when subjects are kept in the Trendelenburg position to facilitate spreading of the vector. We present a detailed analysis of transduction levels throughout the brain, brainstem, and spinal cord of nonhuman primates, providing new guidance for translation toward therapy for a wide range of neurodegenerative disorders. © The American Society of Gene & Cell Therapy. Source


Jean S.M.,University of Southern California | Morales P.R.,Mannheimer Foundation Inc. | Paul K.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Garcia A.,Emory University
Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science | Year: 2011

A 3-y-old male rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatto) was noticed to be lethargic in the compound. Physical exam revealed cyanotic mucous membranes, dyspnea, bilateral harsh lung sounds, wheezing on expiration, and a firm mass possibly associated with the liver. Radiographs revealed bilateral soft tissue opacities in the thorax. Due to poor prognosis, the rhesus was euthanized, and a necropsy was performed. Both right and left lung lobes were consolidated and had multifocal white-tan masses. On cut section, the masses were firm, had areas of necrosis, hemorrhage, and often contained a tenacious exudate. Masses were identified in the liver and both kidneys. Given the morphologic features of the neoplasm, a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma was made. Immunohistochemistry staining for thyroid transcription factor, a nuclear transcription factor normally found in lung, thyroid, and tumors arising from either of those tissues, confirmed that the masses originated from the lung. Malignant primary lung tumors are divided into 8 main histologic subtypes: squamous cell carcinoma, small-cell carcinoma, large-cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma, adenosquamous carcinoma, sarcomatoid carcinoma, carcinoid tumor, and salivary gland tumors. Clinical signs associated with lung tumors include, but are not limited to, dyspnea, coughing, hemoptysis, lethargy, anorexia, and weight loss. Although squamous cell carcinoma will be low on the differential list for these clinical signs, we encourage clinicians and researchers to not rule it out solely based on incidence and age of the animal. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science. Source

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