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Amrein L.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research | Soulieres D.,Center Hospitalier Of Luniversite Of Montreal | Johnston J.B.,Manitoba Institute of Cell Biology | Aloyz R.,Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research
Leukemia Research | Year: 2011

B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common leukemia in adults and there is no cure for the disease. Although dasatinib is cytotoxic to primary CLL lymphocytes in vitro, the drug has been shown to be active in a small percent of CLL patients. Our previous results suggest that dasatinib targets del17 CLL lymphocytes which are the CLL patients with the worst prognosis. Here we present mechanistic evidence that dasatinib induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in CLL lymphocytes. Furthermore we provide evidence suggesting that autophagy mediates resistance to the drugs, process that is modulated by p53. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lin C.-P.,University of California at Berkeley | Choi Y.J.,University of California at Berkeley | Hicks G.G.,Manitoba Institute of Cell Biology | He L.,University of California at Berkeley
Cell Cycle | Year: 2012

The p53 pathway plays an essential role in tumor suppression, regulating multiple cellular processes coordinately to maintain genome integrity in both somatic cells and stem cells. Despite decades of research dedicated to p53 function in differentiated somatic cells, we are just starting to understand the complexity of the p53 pathway in the biology of pluripotent stem cells and tissue stem cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that p53 suppresses proliferation, promotes differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells and constitutes an important barrier to somatic reprogramming. In addition, emerging evidence reveals the role of the p53 network in the self-renewal, proliferation and genomic integrity of adult stem cells. Interestingly, non-coding RNAs and microRNAs in particular, are integral components of the p53 network, regulating multiple p53-controlled biological processes to modulate the self-renewal and differentiation potential of a variety of stem cells. Thus, elucidation of the p53-miRNA axis in stem cell biology may generate profound insights into the mechanistic overlap between malignant transformation and stem cell biology. © 2012 Landes Bioscience. Source

Gordon V.,Cancer Care Manitoba | Gordon V.,University of Manitoba | Banerji S.,Cancer Care Manitoba | Banerji S.,University of Manitoba | Banerji S.,Manitoba Institute of Cell Biology
Clinical Cancer Research | Year: 2013

The triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) subtype, defined clinically by the lack of estrogen, progesterone, and Her2 receptor expression, accounts for 10% to 15% of annual breast cancer diagnoses. Currently, limited therapeutic options have shown clinical benefit beyond cytotoxic chemotherapy. Defining this clinical cohort and identifying subtype-specific molecular targets remain critical for new therapeutic development. The current era of high-throughput molecular analysis has revealed new insights into these targets and confirmed the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) as a key player in pathogenesis. The improved knowledge of the molecular basis of TNBC in parallel with efforts to develop new PI3K pathway-specific inhibitors may finally produce the therapeutic breakthrough that is desperately needed. © 2013 American Association for Cancer Research. Source

Gibson S.B.,Manitoba Institute of Cell Biology | Gibson S.B.,University of Manitoba
Journal of Pathology | Year: 2012

Autophagy contributes to cell survival and is up-regulated under hypoxia in many different cancers. Ovarian cancer has a poor prognosis and is generally resistant to chemotherapy. Through genetic profiling, it has becoming evident that ovarian cancer has distinct subtypes but the significance of these subtypes in ovarian cancer remains unclear. In this issue, Dr Lum and colleagues have presented evidence that autophagy as measured by LC3A staining occurs in a clear cell ovarian cancer that is correlated with hypoxic regions and poor overall survival. In addition, autophagy under hypoxia appears to be higher in clear cell ovarian cancer cells compared to other subtypes. This indicates that autophagy could be a factor in drug resistance and poor survival in clear cell ovarian cancer patients. This insight could lead to a better understanding of the role of autophagy under hypoxia in human ovarian cancer and could be a valuable biomarker for the development of better therapies for clear cell ovarian cancers. Copyright © 2012 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Source

Lu P.,University of Manitoba | Kamboj A.,University of Manitoba | Gibson S.B.,Manitoba Institute of Cell Biology | Anderson C.M.,University of Manitoba
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Excessive pathophysiological activity of the nuclear enzyme poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP1) causes neuron death in brain hypoxia/ischemia by inducing mitochondrial permeability transition and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). Bcl-2/adenovirus E1B19 kDa-interacting protein (Bnip3) is aprodeath BH3-only Bcl-2 protein family member that is induced in hypoxia, and has effects on mitochondrial permeability and neuronal survival similar to those caused by PARP1 activation. We hypothesized that Bnip3 is a critical mediator of PARP1-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and neuron death. Hypoxic death of mouse cortical neuron cultures was mitigated by deletion of either PARP1 or Bnip3, indicating that both factors are involved. Direct normoxic PARP1 activation by a DNA alkylating agent enhanced Bnip3 expression, and caused Bnip3-dependent mitochondrial membrane permeability, AIF translocation, and neuron death. Hypoxia produced PARP1-dependent depletion of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and inhibition of the NAD+-dependent class III histone deactelyase (HDAC) sirtuin-1 (SIRT1). This, in turn, led to hyperacetylation and nuclear localization of the forkhead box (Fox) protein FoxO3a, followed by enhanced association of FoxO3a with the Bnip3 upstream promoter region, increased levels of Bnip3 transcript, and elevated mitochondrial Bnip3 immunoreactivity. Finally, FoxO3a silencing using a lentiviral short hairpin RNA approach significantly reduced hypoxic Bnip3 expression, mitochondrial damage, and neuron death. Together, these data illustrate a direct PARP1-mediated hypoxic signaling pathway involving NAD+ depletion, SIRT1 inhibition, FoxO3a-driven Bnip3 generation, and mitochondrial AIF release. ©2014 the authors. Source

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