Manitoba HIV Program

Winnipeg, Canada

Manitoba HIV Program

Winnipeg, Canada
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Darraj M.,Jazan University | Darraj M.,University of Manitoba | Shafer L.A.,University of Manitoba | Chan S.,Manitoba HIV Program | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Infection and Public Health | Year: 2017

HIV-1 infection is characterized by loss of CD4. T cells, leading to immunodeficiency. Initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) results in suppression of the viral load and increased CD4 counts. Both viral and host factors determine CD4 cell responses to ART with approximately 15-30% of individuals having suboptimal increase of CD4. T cell count, most commonly due to lack of compliance to ART. A smaller fraction of patients will have immune reconstitution failure and suboptimal CD4 increase despite suppression of HIV replication, and these individuals are at risk for adverse health outcomes. We sought to characterize the factors associated with decreased immunological response among Manitoba's HIV patient population.This retrospective case-control study included HIV patients with immune reconstitution failure despite suppression of HIV replication by ART. The immune reconstitution failure was defined by CD4 cell count increase from baseline of less than 100 CD4 cells/mm3 or lack of increase to above 200 CD4 cells/mm3 within one year of viral load suppression. Age and nadir CD4 cell counts are known risk factors associated with immune reconstitution failure. We chose controls (Patients with immune reconstitution success) of similar age and CD4 nadir cell with cases (Patients with immune reconstitution failure). We explored the potential effects of gender, HLA type, presence of co-infection, ethnicity, ART type, and rate of pre-treatment CD4 decline among cases and controls. Of more than 550 patients followed by our HIV clinic, 42 individuals met our definition of immune reconstitution failure and they were assigned to the cases group. 31 patients, comprising a range of ages and CD4 nadirs similar to those of the cases, were assigned to the control group. Our primary analysis was a regression model, predicting post-ART change in CD4 over time.After controlling for age and nadir CD4 cell counts, the only potential predictor that appears consistently associated with the rate of post-ART rise in CD4 over time in our cohort, regardless of the other variables that we have controlled for, is the rate of decline in CD4 pre-ART initiation.Several factors have been variably correlated with immune reconstitution failure of CD4 T cell count. Age and low CD4 nadir are factors previously shown to correlate with immune reconstitution failure; and we have controlled for them in our study. Another possible predictor is the rate of decline in CD4 pre-ART, which can serve as an additional marker of reconstitution failure and necessitate prioritizing individuals to ART initiation or identification of a subset of individuals that may be targeted for future adjunct strategies to improve immune recovery. © 2017 The Authors.


Becker M.L.,University of Manitoba | Thompson L.H.,University of Manitoba | Pindera C.,Manitoba HIV Program | Pindera C.,Nine Circles Community Health Center | And 7 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology | Year: 2013

BACKGROUND: Approximately 26% of Canadians living with HIV are unaware of their status. Point-of-care (POC) HIV tests have been introduced to simplify and expand HIV testing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of POC testing in an emergency department (ED) setting in Winnipeg, Manitoba. METHODS: A cross-sectional study of unselected adults presenting to the ED at the Health Sciences Centre Hospital (Winnipeg, Manitoba) was performed. Study procedures included pre- and post-test counselling, administration of the INSTI HIV-1/HIV-2 Antibody Test (bioLytical Laboratories, Canada) and a brief questionnaire. Venous blood samples were collected from participants for confirmatory testing on all reactive and indeterminate specimens. RESULTS: In total, 501 adults participated in the study. The majority of participants were younger than 40 years of age, approximately onehalf (48.5%) were women and 53% self-identified as Aboriginal. Nearly one-half (49.1%) of the participants had undergone previous HIV testing, although 63% of these tests were performed more than a year earlier. A total of seven individuals tested reactive with the POC test, all of whom were confirmed positive using serological testing (1.4%) and were linked to an HIV specialist within 24 h. Nearly all of the participants (96%) reported satisfaction with the test and believed it belonged in the ED (93%). CONCLUSIONS: Of the participants tested, 1.4% tested reactive for HIV, which is significantly higher than the reported prevalence in Manitoba and in other similar studies conducted in North America. Furthermore, all individuals were linked to timely care. The present study demonstrated that this particular busy tertiary care ED is an important and feasible location for HIV POC testing. ©2013 Pulsus Group Inc. All rights reserved.


Shaw S.Y.,University of Manitoba | Shaw S.Y.,Population Health Surveillance | Ireland L.,Nine Circles Community Health Center | McClarty L.M.,University of Manitoba | And 15 more authors.
AIDS Care - Psychological and Socio-Medical Aspects of AIDS/HIV | Year: 2016

Understanding patterns of serological testing for hepatitis B & C, and syphilis among HIV-positive individuals, prior to HIV diagnosis, can inform HIV diagnosis, engagement and prevention strategies. This was a population-based, retrospective analysis of prior serological testing among HIV-positive individuals in Manitoba, Canada. HIV cases were age-, sex- and region-matched to HIV-negative controls at a 1:5 ratio. Conditional logistic regression was used to examine previous serological tests and HIV status. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were reported. A total of 193 cases and 965 controls were included. In the 5 years prior to diagnosis, 50% of cases had at least one test, compared to 26% of controls. Compared to those who did not have serological testing in the 5 years prior to HIV infection, those who had one serological test were at twice the odds of being HIV positive (OR: 1.9, 95% CI: 1.2–2.9), while those with 2 or more tests were at even higher odds (OR: 5.5, 95%CI: 3.7–8.4). HIV cases had higher serological testing rates. Interactions between public health and other healthcare providers should be strengthened. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


Becker M.L.,University of Manitoba | Kasper K.,University of Manitoba | Pindera C.,Manitoba HIV Program | Cheang M.,University of Manitoba | And 4 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology | Year: 2012

Background: The numbers and demographics of HIV-positive patients in care between 2003 and 2007 in the prairie provinces were examined. Methods: Estimates of HIV-positive patients presenting to care between 2003 and 2007 were obtained from four clinic registries in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and southern Alberta. Detailed data were collected from clinical records of new patients in 2007. Results: By the end of December 2007, 2263 HIV-positive persons were in care in Manitoba, Saskatchewan and southern Alberta. Males and females accounted for 1674 (74.0%) and 589 of the cases, respectively. Overall, there was a 12% increase per year in new HIV cases to care between 2003 and 2007 (P=0.026), with the rate of increase for males being 60% higher than for females over this time period (P=0.002). In 2007, there were 222 new HIV cases to care (37.4% female). Heterosexual contact was the most common HIV risk, but diversity was seen across sites with frequent injection drug use and men who have sex with men risk in Saskatchewan and southern Alberta, respectively. The Aboriginal population remains heavily over-represented, with approximately 36.0% of new cases being Aboriginal. Late presentation was common across all care sites, with 35.1% of cases presenting with CD4 counts of less than 200 cells/mm3. Discussion: Heterosexual risk is the most common risk reported for HIV acquisition, but injection drug use risk remains significant in Saskatchewan. Aboriginals are over-represented at all sites, and in Saskatchewan accounted for the majority of new cases seen. In contrast to national trends, numbers of new and late diagnoses are increasing in the praire provinces, and this has significant treatment implications and potential public health consequences. Further efforts need to be made to facilitate earlier testing and linkage to care. ©2012 Pulsus Group Inc. All rights reserved.


Keynan Y.,Manitoba HIV Program | Keynan Y.,University of Manitoba | Keynan Y.,University of Nairobi | Rueda Z.V.,Pontifical Bolivarian University | And 6 more authors.
International Journal of Immunogenetics | Year: 2015

Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles influence the rate of CD4 decline among HIV-infected individuals. We investigated the association between HLA B35 and HLA B51 and the rate of CD4 decline and/or opportunistic infections, among 294 HIV-positive individuals from Manitoba, Canada. All individuals presenting with a CD4 count >200 cells μL-1, who had at least two CD4 counts, and no evidence of co-infection were included. Individuals bearing HLA B35 or HLA B51 were compared to controls. A multivariate model demonstrated that HLA B35 allele was associated with a hazard ratio of 2.05 (95% CI 1.31-3.18) for reaching AIDS and HLA B51 allele with HR of 2.03 (95% CI 1.18-3.49) for reaching the same end-point. High prevalence of HLA B35 was seen in the patient population receiving care in Manitoba. Our observations confirm the association of HLA B35 with rapid disease progression. We report, for the first time, faster CD4 decline among individuals with HLA B51 allele. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


PubMed | Manitoba HIV Program and Pontifical Bolivarian University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: International journal of immunogenetics | Year: 2015

Human leucocyte antigen (HLA) alleles influence the rate of CD4 decline among HIV-infected individuals. We investigated the association between HLA B35 and HLA B51 and the rate of CD4 decline and/or opportunistic infections, among 294 HIV-positive individuals from Manitoba, Canada. All individuals presenting with a CD4 count >200cellsL(-1) , who had at least two CD4 counts, and no evidence of co-infection were included. Individuals bearing HLA B35 or HLA B51 were compared to controls. A multivariate model demonstrated that HLA B35 allele was associated with a hazard ratio of 2.05 (95% CI 1.31-3.18) for reaching AIDS and HLA B51 allele with HR of 2.03 (95% CI 1.18-3.49) for reaching the same end-point. High prevalence of HLA B35 was seen in the patient population receiving care in Manitoba. Our observations confirm the association of HLA B35 with rapid disease progression. We report, for the first time, faster CD4 decline among individuals with HLA B51 allele.

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