PubMed | University of Guelph, Canadian Food Inspection Agency and Manitoba Agriculture
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Transboundary and emerging diseases | Year: 2016
Soon after the emergence of 2009 pandemic H1N1, the first outbreaks in breeder turkey operations were reported that implicated human-to-turkey transmission. In the spring of 2016, the reoccurrence of 2009 pandemic H1N1 lineage viruses infecting breeder turkey flocks in Ontario and Manitoba, Canada, also implicated human-to-turkey transmission. In addition to raising concerns over biosecurity and vaccine failures, these cases once again raise the issue of whether turkeys have the potential to act as a bridge species to generate novel influenza A virus reassortants with public health implications.
Dosdall L.M.,University of Alberta |
Carcamo H.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Olfert O.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Meers S.,Crop Diversification Center South |
And 2 more authors.
Biological Invasions | Year: 2011
Agroecosystems in the western Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba have been invaded by several alien herbivorous insects from several orders and families. These species have caused very substantial reductions in yield and quality of the dominant crops grown in this region, including cereals (primarily wheat, Triticum aestivum L., barley, Hordeum vulgare L., and oats Avena sativa L.), oilseeds (primarily canola, Brassica napus L. and Brassica rapa L., and mustard, Sinapis alba L. and Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.), and pulses (primarily field pea, Pisum sativum L., lentil, Lens culinaris Medik., and chickpea, Cicer arietinum L.). In this study, we used literature searches to identify the major species of insect pests of field crops in western Canada and determine those species indigenous to the region versus species that have invaded from other continents. We summarize invasion patterns of the alien species, and some estimated economic costs of the invasions. We document the invasion and dispersal patterns of the cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus L. (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), for the first time in all three provinces. We also report the co-occurrence of its exotic parasitoid, Tetrastichus julis (Walker) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), and implications for classical biological control. We present results of field studies describing the dispersal patterns of a second recent invader, the pea leaf weevil, Sitona lineatus L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). The implications of invasions in this region are discussed in terms of economic and ecological effects, and challenges posed for pest mitigation. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
News Article | February 15, 2017
Minister of Agriculture and Agri-Food, Lawrence MacAulay, was in Winnipeg today to provide remarks at the 4th Annual CropConnect Conference, where he announced more than $2.27 M in funding for the crop sector. The federal government is investing nearly $675,000 to support the market development activities of Manitoba's crop sector. This includes support to the Canadian Special Crops Association to promote Canada's pulse and special crops to buyers in Canada and around the world. The CSCA funding will go towards marketing activities such as farm tours, industry-to-industry advocacy, market research, product promotion, education and events like the Pulses 2017: The Future of Food convention. The federal government is also supporting the Cereals Canada to develop and disseminate new promotional material for their Keep it Clean campaign, and to assist with producer and supply chain participation in international market development and missions, including New Crop Missions for wheat. In addition, the Minister announced support for 4 small- and medium-sized crop-related Manitoba food businesses to help them tap into new markets. These investments are part of the federal government's plan to help Canadian farmers expand their customer base, at home and internationally. Minister MacAulay also joined Manitoba Agriculture Minister Eichler to announce more than $1.6 million of joint provincial-territorial funding for eight research projects to deal with a wide range of issues facing Manitoba crop producers. Following the announcement, the two Ministers toured the CropConnect tradeshow to meet industry representatives. After the CropConnect conference, Minister MacAulay will take the opportunity to meet with the newly appointed commissioners of the Canadian Grain Commission, including Chief Commissioner Patti Miller, to discuss key priority areas for maintaining a competitive and efficient grain sector. "Canadian farmers produce the best crops in the world and our Government is committed to helping them develop new markets, both at home and abroad. The funding announced today will increase global demand for Canadian cereals, pulses and special crops, which will put more money in the pockets of our farmers, create good jobs and help grow the middle class." "Growing demand in existing markets and creating new demand by delivering products that align with consumers' interest in healthy, sustainable and affordable foods are top priorities for the industry. AgriMarketing funding is central to our efforts to expand markets and to connect and collaborate with buyers, sellers and processors of pulses and special crops from around the world." "The Keep it Clean - Cereals program and the New Crop Missions are tools to better connect farmers with their customers, both here at home and abroad. The funding helps increase understanding of what farmers can do to protect the Canadian brand and keep critical markets open while at the same time promoting the high value of Canadian cereals to our customers." Like us on Facebook: CanadianAgriculture
Nadler A.J.,Manitoba Agriculture |
Bullock P.R.,University of Manitoba
Climatic Change | Year: 2011
Long-term (approximately 80 years) daily climate records at 12 weather stations across the agricultural production region of the Canadian Prairies were assessed to evaluate trends in seasonal heat units and moisture characteristics for corn (Zea mays). Crop water demand (CWD) and crop water deficit were modelled at each station. Growing season accumulation of these as well as corn heat units (CHU) and rainfall were tested for long-term trends using linear regression. Significant positive trends in CHU were present in the southernmost stations while the northern stations displayed no trend or significant negative trends. Growing season precipitation showed a significant increase on average and most stations showed a positive trend but only one station showed a significant positive trend. CWD declined at most stations with significant negative trends at seven stations. Crop water deficient also declined with significant negative trends at six stations. The spatial variation in these results and those reported in other studies in the region underscores the difficulty involved in forecasting future trends in agroclimatic conditions. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Brady J.,University of Manitoba |
Hernandez-Doria J.D.,University of Manitoba |
Bennett C.,Manitoba Agriculture |
Guenter W.,University of Manitoba |
And 2 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2010
The present study determined the effect of Clostridium perfringens isolates taken from necrotic enteritis (NE) outbreaks on organic farms in a NE virulence testing model. Thirteen strains were isolated in the course of the study. Six C. perfringens field isolates were taken from a naturally occurring NE outbreak on an organic farm. Polymerase chain reaction toxinotyping was used to establish C. perfringens strains, as well as to create a toxin profile. All field isolates were found to be type A and positive for alpha, beta-2 and netB toxin genes. During the NE virulence model, digesta samples were collected before oral inoculation to define the C. perfringens found as part of the natural flora. Three of the five natural flora isolates were found to be C. perfringens type E while the other two isolates were type A; only four of five isolates were positive for either netB or beta-2 toxin genes. Two isolates collected after inoculation were C. perfringens type A positive for cpb2 and netB. All isolates were tested positive for the quorum-sensing-related gene luxS, regardless of the strain source. The presence of luxS, alpha, netB and beta-2 toxin genes seems not to be a determinant of the disease as they were present in isolates from both outbreak birds as well as healthy and pre inoculated birds. The C. perfringens field isolates induced mild NE lesions in one-half of the birds during the challenge study. Other mechanisms must play a role in the development of the disease beyond toxinotype, potentially including intestinal ecology and health, which would account for acute disease as seen in the field outbreak. © 2010 Houghton Trust Ltd.
Bernier J.N.,Manitoba Agriculture |
Undi M.,University of Manitoba |
Plaizier J.C.,University of Manitoba |
Wittenberg K.M.,University of Manitoba |
And 2 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2012
This study was conducted to determine the impact of prolonged cold exposure on dry matter intake (DMI) and enteric methane (CH4) emissions of overwintering beef cows consuming low-quality forage with and without supplemented protein in the form of dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). The study was carried out with 30 mature, dry, open beef cows (663 ± 52.9 kg) that were fed a low-quality (deficient CP, 6.0% CP) forage (control), low-quality forage supplemented with 10% DDGS (sufficient CP, 8.7% CP; DDGS10) or 20% DDGS (excess CP, 11.6% CP; DDGS20). Carrying out the study from October through February allowed assessment under thermal neutral and prolonged cold conditions typical of the prairie region of Canada (Manitoba, Alberta and Saskatchewan). Average minimum and maximum daily temperatures were 2.7 and 13.8°C in the thermal neutral period, and -23.5 and -11.0°C in the prolonged cold period, respectively. When no protein supplements were offered, cows exposed to prolonged cold consumed less (P=0.01) forage than when exposed to thermal neutral conditions. Enteric CH4 emissions, when measured as litres per day, were not influenced (P>0.05) by dietary protein supplementation, averaging 285.6 ± 11.71, 311.9 ± 11.49 and 282.6913.02 L d-1 for cows fed control, DDGS10, and DDGS20 diets, respectively. When expressed as a percentage of energy consumed, cows consuming lowquality forage supplemented with 20% DDGS produced 18.5% less (P=0.01) enteric CH4 relative to cows consuming the low-quality forage only, with emissions of 5.3±0.38 and 6.5±0.33% GEI, respectively. Mature beef cows maintained at the same physiological status and dietary regime produced 26.8% less (P=0.001) enteric CH4 (7.1 ± 0.30 vs. 5.2 ± 0.26% GEI) under prolonged cold as compared with thermal neutral conditions. Based on these results, enteric CH4 emissions for the Canadian cow herd that is overwintered outdoors may be overestimated using current International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) methodology.
Khakbazan M.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Grant C.A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Finlay G.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Wu R.,Manitoba Agriculture |
And 6 more authors.
Canadian Journal of Plant Science | Year: 2013
To evaluate the use of controlled-release urea (CRU) as a beneficial management practice for nitrogen management of wheat, barley, and canola, a multi-location study was conducted from 2004 to 2006 in a range of agro-environments across western Canada. The objective was to evaluate the relative economic performance of CRU and non-coated urea (NCU) for their effects on seed yield and quality, costs and net revenue (NR) using conventional tillage (CT) and reduced tillage (RT) management under varying environmental conditions. The NR was estimated as the income remaining after paying for all cash costs, ownership costs on machinery and buildings, and labour. The main factor affecting crop yield and NR was N application rate. In general, application of NCU produced similar or higher net revenues than that of CRU, split fertilizer applications or a blend of NCU and CRU. There were some limited situations where the use of split applications, CRU or CRU in a blend with the NCU increased crop yield as compared with NCU; however, the increased yield was not sufficient to cover the extra costs of CRU or the split application. The impact of tillage system on crop yield and NR was not consistent. Net revenue was higher under CT than RT for certain crops in some regions, but not in all regions or for all crops. Overall, NR analysis indicated that use of CRU did not provide an economic benefit over the use of NCU.
Grant C.A.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Wu R.,Manitoba Agriculture |
Selles F.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
Harker K.N.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada |
And 4 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2012
Controlled release urea (CRU) has been shown to improve nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency in a number of production systems. However, the effectiveness of CRU will be strongly affected by the environmental conditions of the region. Research trials were conducted at five locations across four major ecoregions spanning 1600. km across the Northern Great Plains and Pacific Maritimes of North America from 2004 to 2006 to evaluate the effects of a single application of polymer-coated urea (CRU) or split applications of urea fertilizer as compared with non-coated urea for their effects on crop growth, crop N concentration, and crop N accumulation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), barley (Hordeum vulagre L.) canola (Brassica napus L.) and corn (Zea mays L.) across a wide range of environmental conditions. Urea applied as an in-soil band at the time of seeding was generally as or more effective than similarly placed CRU, split application of urea or blended urea and CRU in the semi-arid Mixed Grassland, moist Aspen Parkland or wet Boreal Transition ecoregions in increasing early season dry matter yield and seed or grain yield of canola, wheat or barley. Similarly, broadcast urea was as or more effective than broadcast CRU, split applications or blended applications in increasing corn dry matter yield under the wet conditions in the Lower Mainland ecoregion. There were some situations where use of split applications or use of the CRU in a blend with the non-coated urea resulted in increases in grain yield as compared to the non-coated urea, primarily under moist conditions in the Boreal Transition or Aspen Parkland ecoregions. Some yield losses occurred from use of the CRU as compared with the non-coated urea and were attributed to delays in release of N from the granule that limited early season N availability and crop growth, especially in corn with a high N demand. Effects on grain N concentration and accumulation of N in the crop at harvest were mixed, with the CRU, blended applications of CRU and urea or split applications occasionally producing higher grain N concentration and N accumulation in the crop than the non-coated urea. Benefits of CRU on grain N concentration were more frequent than benefits on grain yield, but were not large or consistent. Response of crop growth and N uptake to N management was generally similar under CT and RT, with occasional differences occurring due to changes in yield potential or N deficit associated with the differences in tillage management. Therefore, under growing conditions across a wide range of ecoregions in the Northern Great Plains and the Pacific Maritimes, the use of CRU or split applications do not appear to provide a consistent improvement in crop yield, N concentration in the grain, total N accumulation at harvest, or nitrogen use efficiency as compared to standard regional timing and placement of non-coated urea. © 2011.
Carruthers C.,University of Saskatchewan |
Gabrush T.,University of Saskatchewan |
Schwean-Lardner K.,University of Saskatchewan |
Knezacek T.D.,University of Saskatchewan |
And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Poultry Research | Year: 2012
Commercial laying hens in North America are typically beak trimmed to prevent injury and mortality caused by feather pecking and cannibalism. Beak trimming is most commonly performed on day-old chicks at the hatchery, either by hot blade (HB) or infrared (INF) techniques. The differences between these 2 methods and the potential variability within each method may cause morphological differences in the beaks of laying hens throughout their production cycle. Few data are available detailing variations between the beaks of laying hens after trimming in commercial settings. The purpose of this field survey was to measure beak lengths of 4 commercial laying hen flocks at 2 age ranges treated by either HB or INF techniques at hatch. Statistical analyses of the data for the 2 treatment types were not possible because of genetic and environmental differences between flocks; therefore, statements comparing treatments are not meant as definitive and are provided for general information only. Infrared-treated hens had shorter beaks with a lower SEM, and they generally exhibited fewer beak abnormalities than HB-trimmed hens at both ages. It is our observation in this field survey that INF-treated commercial hens seemed to have less variation in beak length and fewer beak abnormalities. ©2012 Poultry Science Association, Inc.
Pasma T.,Manitoba Agriculture |
Joseph T.,Manitoba Agriculture
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2010
In Manitoba, Canada, several swine herds were infected by pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus in the summer of 2009. Results of several investigations concluded that outbreaks of infection with this virus are similar in duration to outbreaks of infections with swine influenza viruses A (H1N1) and A (H3N2).