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Bhopal, India

Yadav S.,Indian Institute of Technology Indore | Sudhakar K.,MANIT
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

Abstract Access to safe, fresh and clean drinking water is one of the major problems in different parts of the world. Among many water purification technologies solar desalination/distillation/purification is one of the most sustainable and attractive method employed to meet the supply of clean drinkable water in remote areas at a very reasonable cost. Over the past three decades, there have been numerous designs of solar still system developed worldwide. However the technology is not commercialized and standardized because of its lower yield. This article provides a comprehensive review of the various designs of solar stills used at domestic level. Performance parameters like heat transfer analysis, energy analysis, exergy analysis, thermal efficiency and economic analysis have been presented for the domestic designs of solar stills. Though solar still have not been successfully commercialized as yet, with the ongoing research efforts, they can be modified and improved for future domestic applications. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Sahu J.N.,Bharat Heavy Electricals Ltd. | Sasikumar C.,MANIT
Materials Today: Proceedings | Year: 2016

A hard Nano crystalline surface was produced by simultaneous surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) and mechanical alloying (MA) with activated carbon, followed by low temperature annealing below 500°C. The thermal stability of surface Nano crystals produced by SMAT and low temperature diffusion of carbon into Nano crystals were also investigated by annealing 200°C to500°C for 1h. Ni-Cr-Mo casehardening steel was used in the present study. The formation of Nano crystals and surface alloying with activated carbon by SMAT, microstructural changes during annealing, thermal stability of the Nano crystals and the surface hardness were been investigated by using Optical microscope, SEM, XRD and microvicker's hardness tester. Experimental results had showed 20-50 nm crystals by SMAT operation by enhancing 0.19C to 0.4C. Enhanced diffusion kinetics of Nano crystals observed during the annealing process even at 200°C. The simultaneous SMAT and MA with carbon increased the surface hardness from 1.5 to 3.0 GPa in 20 minutes and subsequent annealing further increased the hardness steadily up to 450°C. A maximum hardness of 4.5 GPa was achieved by annealing treatment. The hardness decreased considerably at 500°C indicating grain growth at thistemperature. The results had clearly demonstrated that the surface Nano crystals formed by SMAT were found stable up to 450°C. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lalji M.K.,P.A. College | Sarviya R.M.,MANIT | Bhagoria J.L.,MANIT
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2012

In view of above present investigation is planned with the following. The present investigation has been carried out with the following objectives: To study performance of packed bed solar air heater for high porosity range and for different shapes of matrices.Development of correlations for heat transfer coefficient and friction factor for packed bed solar air heater and its comparison with conventional design.Exergy analysis of packed bed solar air heater. The present study involved outdoor experimental work for generation of heat transfer and friction data for flow in a packed bed solar air heater at different mass flow rates of air for various porosities and shapes of matrices. Data is also collected for conventional smooth duct under similar operating conditions for ensuring accuracy of experimental data. Six matrices had been tested for seven values of flow rates corresponding to flow Reynolds number of about 1000-4700 and data is collected under steady state condition. Ranges of parameters covered in this experimental investigation are as follows:Reynolds number, Re=1000-4700Porosity, P=0.9614-0.9984Number of layers, n=3-6 It is found that in the entire range of Reynolds number, Colburn factor decreases with an increase of packing Reynolds number and volumetric heat transfer increased monotonically with a decrease in porosity. Also from the various matrices studied hexagonal shaped matrix performed lowest of all other matrices. Square shaped matrix performed best amongst the matrices studied. Following correlations have been developed for Colburn factor and friction factor in terms of porosity and operating parameters: Jh=0.1765[( 1/nP)0.6156)( pt/dw)0.1229] 0.6651Rep-0.4767 fp=2.0291[( 1/nP)0.3521)( pt/dw)0.0686] 0.6759Rep-0.3897. Source

Gupta K.K.,Medi Caps Institute of Science and Technology | Rehman A.,MANIT | Sarviya R.M.,MANIT
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2010

Due to depletion of fossil fuel, bio-fuels have generated a significant interest as an alternative fuel for the future. The use of bio-fuels to fuel gas turbine seems a viable solution for the problems of decreasing fossil-fuel reserves and environmental concerns. Bio-fuels are alternative fuels, made from renewable sources and having environmental benefit. In recent years, the desire for energy independence, foreseen depletion of nonrenewable fuel resources, fluctuating petroleum fuel costs, the necessity of stimulating agriculture based economy, and the reality of climate change have created an interest in the development of bio-fuels. The application of bio-fuels in automobiles and heating applications is increasing day by day. Therefore the use of these fuels in gas turbines would extend this application to aviation field. The impact of costly petroleum-based aviation fuel on the environment is harmful. So the development of alternative fuels in aviation is important and useful. The use of liquid and gaseous fuels from biomass will help to fulfill the Kyoto targets concerning global warming emissions. In addition, to reduce exhaust emission waste gases and syngas, etc., could be used as a potential gas turbine fuel. The term bio-fuel is referred to alternative fuel which is produced from biomass. Such fuels include bio-diesel, bio-ethanol, bio-methanol, pyrolysis oil, biogas, synthetic gas (dimethyl ether), hydrogen, etc. The bio-ethanol and bio-methanol are petrol additive/substitute. Bio-diesel is an environment friendly alternative liquid fuel for the diesel/aviation fuel. The gas turbine develops steady flame during its combustion; this feature gives a flexibility to use alternative fuels. Therefore so the use of different bio-fuels in gas turbine has been investigated by a good number of researchers. The suitability and modifications in the existing systems are also recommended. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Kushwaha S.K.,MANIT | Shakya M.,MANIT
Journal of Theoretical Biology | Year: 2010

In host-parasite diseases like tuberculosis, non-homologous proteins (enzymes) as drug target are first preference. Most potent drug target can be identified among large number of non-homologous protein through protein interaction network analysis. In this study, the entire promising dimension has been explored for identification of potential drug target. A comparative metabolic pathway analysis of the host Homo sapiens and the pathogen M. tuberculosis H37Rv has been performed with three level of analysis. In first level, the unique metabolic pathways of M. tuberculosis have been identified through its comparative study with H. sapiens and identification of non-homologous proteins has been done through BLAST similarity search. In second level, choke-point analysis has been performed with identified non-homologous proteins of metabolic pathways. In third level, two type of analysis have been performed through protein interaction network. First analysis has been done to find out the most potential metabolic functional associations among all identified choke point proteins whereas second analysis has been performed to find out the functional association of high metabolic interacting proteins to pathogenesis causing proteins. Most interactive metabolic proteins which have highest number of functional association with pathogenesis causing proteins have been considered as potential drug target. A list of 18 potential drug targets has been proposed which are various stages of progress at the TBSGC and proposed drug targets are also studied for other pathogenic strains. As a case study, we have built a homology model of identified drug targets histidinol-phosphate aminotransferase (HisC1) using MODELLER software and various information have been generated through molecular dynamics which will be useful in wetlab structure determination. The generated model could be further explored for insilico docking studies with suitable inhibitors. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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