Fernandes S.C.,Manipal University India
The Indian journal of medical research | Year: 2013
Enterococci are the leading cause of nosocomial infections, and are thus a persisting clinical problem globally. We undertook this study to determine the virulence factors and the antibiotic resistance in Enterococcus clinical isolates. One hundred and fifty Enterococcus isolates obtained from various clinical specimens were speciated biochemically and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Resistance to vancomycin was determined by using agar screen method. Haemolysin and gelatinase productions were detected using 5 per cent sheep blood agar and 12 per cent gelatin agar, respectively. Among the 150 Enterococcus isolates, 84 (56%) were E. faecalis. 51(34%) E. faecium, and 15 (10%) were other Enterococcus spp. Haemolysin production was seen among 123 (82%) isolates while 61 (40.6%) isolates produced gelatinase. Nearly 50 per cent of the isolates showed high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR). A total of 13 (8.6%) isolates showed vancomycin resistance, of which 11(7.3%) had an MIC >8 μg/ml. Presence of VRE was found to be low among the isolates studied. However, occurrence of VRE along with HLAR calls for regular detection of vancomycin resistance promptly and accurately to recognize VRE colonization and infection. Early detection of VRE and HLAR along with their virulence trait will help in preventing the establishment and spread of multidrug resistant Enterococcus species.
Mahabala C.,Manipal University India
Vascular health and risk management | Year: 2013
Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Management of hypertension is generally based on office blood pressure since it is easy to determine. Since casual blood pressure readings in the office are influenced by various factors, they do not represent basal blood pressure. Dipping of the blood pressure in the night is a normal physiological change that can be blunted by cardiovascular risk factors and the severity of hypertension. Nondipping pattern is associated with disease severity, left ventricular hypertrophy, increased proteinuria, secondary forms of hypertension, increased insulin resistance, and increased fibrinogen level. Long-term observational studies have documented increased cardiovascular events in patients with nondipping patterns. Nocturnal dipping can be improved by administering the antihypertensive medications in the night. Long-term clinical trials have shown that cardiovascular events can be reduced by achieving better dipping patterns by administering medications during the night. Identifying the dipping pattern is useful for decisions to investigate for secondary causes, initiating treatment, necessity of chronotherapy, withdrawal or reduction of unnecessary medications, and monitoring after treatment initiation. Use of this concept at the primary care level has been limited because 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been the only method for documenting dipping/nondipping status so far. This monitoring technique is expensive and inconvenient for routine usage. Simpler methods using home blood pressure monitoring systems are evolving to document basal blood pressure in the night, which would help in greater acceptance and use of the concept of dipper/nondipper in managing hypertension at the primary care level.
Babu A.S.,Manipal University India
The Indian journal of medical research | Year: 2013
Exercise based rehabilitation for patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a new treatment option for these patients to improve their functional capacity and quality of life. Despite the benefits seen in cardiopulmonary rehabilitation in various other conditions, it has been underutilized for the patients with PAH. A review of currently registered ongoing trials on exercise training for patients with PAH from the World Health Organization International Clinical Trial Registry Platform was done using the key words "rehabilitation", "exercise training", "pulmonary artery hypertension" and "pulmonary hypertension" for a period of 10 years (2002-2012). The search revealed 57 registered trials in various trial registries from which seven met the inclusion criteria. The current studies are being carried out in Germany (n=4), Brazil (n=1), Australia (n=1) and India (n=1). This indicates a shift in focus from the only medical management to the rehabilitation and long term care for patients with PAH.
Bhat Y R.,Manipal University India
Italian journal of pediatrics | Year: 2011
Epidemiology and surveillance of neonatal sepsis helps in implementation of rational empirical antibiotic strategy. To study the frequency of bacterial isolates of early onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) and their sensitivity pattern. In this retrospective study, a case of EONS was defined as an infant who had clinical signs or born to mothers with potential risk factors for infection, in whom blood culture obtained within 72 hours of life, grew a bacterial pathogen. Blood culture sample included a single sample from peripheral vein or artery. Relevant data was obtained from the unit register or neonatal case records. Of 2182 neonates screened, there were 389 (17.8%) positive blood cultures. After excluding coagulase-negative Staphylococci (160), we identified 229 EONS cases. Preterm neonates were 40.6% and small for gestational age, 18.3%. Mean birth weight and male to female ratio were 2344.5 (696.9) g and 1.16:1 respectively. Gram negative species represented 90.8% of culture isolates. Pseudomonas (33.2%) and Klebsiella (31.4%) were common among them. Other pathogens included Acinetobacter (14.4%), Staphylococcus aureus (9.2%), E.coli (4.4%), Enterobacter (2.2%), Citrobacter (3.1%) and Enterococci (2.2%). In Gram negative group, best susceptibility was to Amikacin (74.5%), followed by other aminoglycosides, ciprofloxacin and cefotaxime. The susceptibility was remarkably low to ampicillin (8.4%). Gram positive group had susceptibility of 42.9% to erythromycin, 47.6% to ciprofloxacin and above 50% to aminoglycosides. Of all isolates, 83.8% were susceptible to either cefotaxime or amikacin Gram-negative species especially Pseudomonas and Klebsiella were the predominant causative organisms. Initial empirical choice of cefotaxime in combination with amikacin appeared to be rational choice for a given cohort.
Behere R.V.,Manipal University India
Indian Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2013
Schizophrenia is a disorder with variable outcome and the ability to predict the outcome has important clinical utility. Neurological soft signs (NSS) and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex volumes have been described as trait markers for schizophrenia and their relation to long-term outcome in schizophrenia has not been well studied. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between baseline dorsolateral prefrontal lobe (DLPFL) volume and NSS scores to clinical and functional outcome variables in a cohort of schizophrenia patients who were anti-psychotic naïve at baseline. Fourteen anti-psychotic naive schizophrenia patients whose baseline magnetic resonance imaging scans, NSS scores and positive and negative signs and symptoms scale (PANSS) scores (assessed in drug naïve state) were available were reevaluated after a mean follow-up period of 74.2±24.2 months. The clinical outcome variables measured was PANSS. The social and functional outcome was assessed comprehensively by the socio occupational functioning scale and the Strauss Carpenter outcome scale. The DLPFL, volume was measured from the baseline scans using the region of interest method. Statistical analysis was done using the paired samples t-test and the Pearson′s correlation co-efficient. The results showed that smaller left DLPFL volume and greater primitive reflexes at baseline predicted greater negative symptoms and poorer functional outcome on follow-up. This study also demonstrates the clinical utility of NSS as a simple bedside tool in assessing schizophrenia patients.
Paitya N.,Manipal University India
Journal of Bionanoscience | Year: 2013
Osteoblast cells are the most abundant and fundamental elements in bone, and their concentration in serum is closely linked to bone metabolism and serves as a biological marker for the clinical assessment of bone disease. In this paper, the theoretical analysis of the induced membrane potential for a single and dense osteoblast cell with different microelectrodes in which the response of a cell model at various frequencies and the effect of cell parameters, such as cell membrane resistance and capacitance, are studied using the numerical simulation. The results of the paper determines that the induced Trans Membrane Potential (TMP) of osteoblast cell depends not only on its radius and geometry of the microelectrode but also the resistances and capacitances of suspending medium, which effects the dielectric property of osteoblast cell. All the information of our study gives the new aid to the osteo clinical diagnosis and bone cancer treatment. This study reveals that in osteoblast cell trans membrane potential, density and radius of pore in membrane, can be controlled by changing the microstructure of electrode. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved.
Kumar S.P.,Manipal University India
North American Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2011
Background: Lumbar segmental stability is an important biomechanical component that influences symptoms amongst patients with Mechanical low back pain. Aims: To compare the efficacy of segmental stabilization exercises utilizing multifidus and transversus abdominis muscles versus a placebo treatment in patients with lumbar segmental instability. Materials and methods: The study was an observer-blinded randomized placebo-controlled cross-over study of 18 adults (12 men, 6 women), of mean age 22.5 ± 1.09 yrs who scored 7/13 in subjective aspects and 8/14 in objective aspects of Delphi criteria for lumbar segmental instability. The selected subjects were then randomized to receive either placebo-control (prone lying) or experimental (lumbar segmental stabilization) as a first treatment. Each treatment was followed by a wash-out period of 24 hours. Outcomes were measured four times- pre- and post- first intervention, pre- and post- second intervention. The outcome measures used were pain on Visual analogue scale, Pressure pain threshold and Joint play grading scale (0-6 scale) on that level. Results: Two-way analysis of variance and post-hoc analysis using Bonferonni test were used with level of significance set at p<.05 using Statistical package for social sciences version 12.0.1 for Windows. Visual analogue scale changed significantly in both the periods of intervention- in control (P =.016) and experimental (P =.000) periods. However this improvement was more significant in the experimental period. The Joint play grading scale scores improved only in the experimental condition compared to the control condition significantly. The Pressure pain threshold also improved significantly in the experimental condition (P =.000) while the changes in control condition was not statistically significant (P=.816). Conclusion: Segmental stabilization exercise was more effective than placebo intervention in symptomatic lumbar segmental instability.
Shah H.,Manipal University India
Orthopedic Clinics of North America | Year: 2014
Perthes disease refers to self-limiting idiopathic avascular necrosis of capital femoral epiphysis in a child. There is no consensus for the optimum treatment of Perthes disease even 100years after the first description. The prime aim of the treatment is to maintain the sphericity of the femoral head and the congruency of the femur-acetabulum relationship to prevent secondary degenerative arthritis. Early diagnosis and management can help the collapse of femoral head, progressive femoral head deformity, and impingement. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.
Manipal University India | Date: 2011-01-06
Technologies are generally described for a marking gauge. In some examples, the marking gauge includes a scribing bar and a marking pin disposed at a fixed location in the scribing bar. A bolt may extend through a stock and the scribing bar. A nut may be in contact with the scribing bar and engaged with the bolt. The nut and the bolt may be effective to fasten the stock to the scribing bar. The scribing bar may include walls defining a longitudinally extending slot and the mortise pin may extend through the longitudinally extending slot. A pointed end of the mortise pin and of the marking pin may be adjustable with respect to the scribing bar.
Manipal University India | Date: 2011-02-18
A method and system for liquid purification and defrosting a freezing unit harvests energy released as heat from a condenser. Liquid received from a source into a first liquid storage container is heated using heat collected from the condenser using at least one heat conducting rod. A second liquid storage container connected to the first liquid storage container is maintained at a lower temperature than the first liquid storage container. As a first portion of heated liquid is transferred from the first liquid storage container to the second liquid storage container, bacteria in the first portion of heated liquid is denatured as a result of the temperature change, and the liquid is purified. Filters may also be used to improve purification. A second portion of heated liquid is transferred between the first liquid storage container and a freezing unit via at least one heat conducting pipe causing defrosting of the freezing unit.