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Dengale S.J.,Manipal University India | Grohganz H.,Copenhagen University | Rades T.,Copenhagen University | Lobmann K.,Copenhagen University
Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews | Year: 2016

Co-amorphous drug delivery systems have recently gained considerable interest in the pharmaceutical field because of their potential to improve oral bioavailability of poorly water-soluble drugs through drug dissolution enhancement as a result of the amorphous nature of the material. A co-amorphous system is characterized by the use of only low molecular weight components that are mixed into a homogeneous single-phase co-amorphous blend. The use of only low molecular weight co-formers makes this approach very attractive, as the amount of amorphous stabilizer can be significantly reduced compared with other amorphous stabilization techniques. Because of this, several research groups started to investigate the co-amorphous formulation approach, resulting in an increasing amount of scientific publications over the last few years. This study provides an overview of the co-amorphous field and its recent findings. In particular, we investigate co-amorphous formulations from the viewpoint of solid dispersions, describe their formation and mechanism of stabilization, study their impact on dissolution and in vivo performance and briefly outline the future potentials. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Sandeep H.M.,Manipal University India | Arunachala U.C.,Manipal University India
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2017

The earlier Parabolic Trough Collectors (PTC) with non-evacuated receiver delivered lower thermal-efficiency even with use of reflector having best optical characteristics due to convection and radiation losses. Hence heat transfer enhancement in PTC became essential to transfer maximum heat to Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF), which can further reduce the system size. The present study is focused on review and feasibility of various heat transfer augmentation techniques for PTC receiver. These include the use of evacuated receivers, nanofluids with/without inserts and use of inserts with base fluids. PTC with evacuated receivers have thermal-efficiency in the range of 65–70% which is about 10% higher than PTC with non-evacuated receiver. The enhancement in heat transfer by nanofluids is due to the combined effect of increase in effective thermal conductivity and decrease in thermal boundary layer thickness. Nanofluids in plain tube without inserts enhanced heat transfer in the range of 15–60%. The heat transfer enhancement by inserts is due to the combined effect of increased effective heat transfer area, swirl generation and increase in flow turbulence with interruption to the growth of boundary layer. Further rise in efficiency is observed for nanofluids with insert due to the combined effect. The enhanced heat transfer in laminar regime was 20–300% for base fluid with insert compared to that in plain receiver. Similarly the rise was 30–50% for nanofluid with insert. Since swirl generation is difficult in laminar regime, heat transfer enhancement is less compared to turbulent regime. The base fluids with insert augmented heat transfer by 10–200% in turbulent region compared to its flow in plane receiver. Likewise, the enhancement observed for nanofluid with insert was 15–340%. It can be concluded that, for PTC application use of insert with base fluid is beneficial in the laminar region and nanofluid with insert is justified for turbulent regime. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd


Malhotra N.,Manipal University India
British Dental Journal | Year: 2011

Healing following avulsion and replantation is dependent on the extent of pulpal and periodontal ligament (PDL) tissue damage. Therefore, immediate replantation is the recommended treatment of choice for an avulsed permanent tooth. To achieve a more favourable prognosis following tooth replantation, use of an appropriate interim transport medium is usually advocated. Numerous studies have researched and advocated the use of media like saliva, milk, Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and ViaSpan. However, current research has indicated the use of few newer media as promising interim transport media for an avulsed tooth. This review summarises the current developments regarding the introduction of newer interim transport media for the treatment of avulsed teeth. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.


Ray R.,Institute of Life science | Ray R.,Manipal University India | Juranek J.K.,New York University | Juranek J.K.,University of Warmia and Mazury | Rai V.,Institute of Life science
Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews | Year: 2016

RAGE, the receptor of advanced glycation end-products, is thought to be one of the potential contributors to the neurodegeneration. It has been shown that RAGE activation triggers an increase in proinflammatory molecules, oxidative stressors and cytokines. RAGE involvement has been documented in the pathogenesis of a number of neurodegenerative diseases such amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's, Creutzfeld-Jakob' diseases and various neurodegenerative conditions such as diabetic neuropathy, familial amyloid polyneuropathy, Charcot neuroarthropathy and vasculitic neuropathy. Although the detailed mechanisms of RAGE contribution to the neurodegeneration remains unclear, studies indicate that RAGE detrimental actions are exerted via its binding to the pro-inflammatory ligands such as advanced glycation end-products, S100/calgranulin and amphoterin and subsequent activation of downstream regulatory pathways such as NF-κB, STAT and JKN pathways. Here, in this review we attempt to shed light onto molecular events and pathological pathways involved in neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration and its emerging role in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) - a progressive and fatal neurodegenerative disorder, summarizing current knowledge and the prospect of RAGE in the pathogenesis of this disastrous disease. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Fernandes S.C.,Manipal University India
The Indian journal of medical research | Year: 2013

Enterococci are the leading cause of nosocomial infections, and are thus a persisting clinical problem globally. We undertook this study to determine the virulence factors and the antibiotic resistance in Enterococcus clinical isolates. One hundred and fifty Enterococcus isolates obtained from various clinical specimens were speciated biochemically and subjected to antibiotic susceptibility testing using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. Resistance to vancomycin was determined by using agar screen method. Haemolysin and gelatinase productions were detected using 5 per cent sheep blood agar and 12 per cent gelatin agar, respectively. Among the 150 Enterococcus isolates, 84 (56%) were E. faecalis. 51(34%) E. faecium, and 15 (10%) were other Enterococcus spp. Haemolysin production was seen among 123 (82%) isolates while 61 (40.6%) isolates produced gelatinase. Nearly 50 per cent of the isolates showed high level aminoglycoside resistance (HLAR). A total of 13 (8.6%) isolates showed vancomycin resistance, of which 11(7.3%) had an MIC >8 μg/ml. Presence of VRE was found to be low among the isolates studied. However, occurrence of VRE along with HLAR calls for regular detection of vancomycin resistance promptly and accurately to recognize VRE colonization and infection. Early detection of VRE and HLAR along with their virulence trait will help in preventing the establishment and spread of multidrug resistant Enterococcus species.


Mahabala C.,Manipal University India
Vascular health and risk management | Year: 2013

Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Management of hypertension is generally based on office blood pressure since it is easy to determine. Since casual blood pressure readings in the office are influenced by various factors, they do not represent basal blood pressure. Dipping of the blood pressure in the night is a normal physiological change that can be blunted by cardiovascular risk factors and the severity of hypertension. Nondipping pattern is associated with disease severity, left ventricular hypertrophy, increased proteinuria, secondary forms of hypertension, increased insulin resistance, and increased fibrinogen level. Long-term observational studies have documented increased cardiovascular events in patients with nondipping patterns. Nocturnal dipping can be improved by administering the antihypertensive medications in the night. Long-term clinical trials have shown that cardiovascular events can be reduced by achieving better dipping patterns by administering medications during the night. Identifying the dipping pattern is useful for decisions to investigate for secondary causes, initiating treatment, necessity of chronotherapy, withdrawal or reduction of unnecessary medications, and monitoring after treatment initiation. Use of this concept at the primary care level has been limited because 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has been the only method for documenting dipping/nondipping status so far. This monitoring technique is expensive and inconvenient for routine usage. Simpler methods using home blood pressure monitoring systems are evolving to document basal blood pressure in the night, which would help in greater acceptance and use of the concept of dipper/nondipper in managing hypertension at the primary care level.


Paitya N.,Manipal University India
Journal of Bionanoscience | Year: 2013

Osteoblast cells are the most abundant and fundamental elements in bone, and their concentration in serum is closely linked to bone metabolism and serves as a biological marker for the clinical assessment of bone disease. In this paper, the theoretical analysis of the induced membrane potential for a single and dense osteoblast cell with different microelectrodes in which the response of a cell model at various frequencies and the effect of cell parameters, such as cell membrane resistance and capacitance, are studied using the numerical simulation. The results of the paper determines that the induced Trans Membrane Potential (TMP) of osteoblast cell depends not only on its radius and geometry of the microelectrode but also the resistances and capacitances of suspending medium, which effects the dielectric property of osteoblast cell. All the information of our study gives the new aid to the osteo clinical diagnosis and bone cancer treatment. This study reveals that in osteoblast cell trans membrane potential, density and radius of pore in membrane, can be controlled by changing the microstructure of electrode. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers. All rights reserved.


Shah H.,Manipal University India
Orthopedic Clinics of North America | Year: 2014

Perthes disease refers to self-limiting idiopathic avascular necrosis of capital femoral epiphysis in a child. There is no consensus for the optimum treatment of Perthes disease even 100years after the first description. The prime aim of the treatment is to maintain the sphericity of the femoral head and the congruency of the femur-acetabulum relationship to prevent secondary degenerative arthritis. Early diagnosis and management can help the collapse of femoral head, progressive femoral head deformity, and impingement. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.


Patent
Manipal University India | Date: 2011-01-06

Technologies are generally described for a marking gauge. In some examples, the marking gauge includes a scribing bar and a marking pin disposed at a fixed location in the scribing bar. A bolt may extend through a stock and the scribing bar. A nut may be in contact with the scribing bar and engaged with the bolt. The nut and the bolt may be effective to fasten the stock to the scribing bar. The scribing bar may include walls defining a longitudinally extending slot and the mortise pin may extend through the longitudinally extending slot. A pointed end of the mortise pin and of the marking pin may be adjustable with respect to the scribing bar.


Patent
Manipal University India | Date: 2011-02-18

A method and system for liquid purification and defrosting a freezing unit harvests energy released as heat from a condenser. Liquid received from a source into a first liquid storage container is heated using heat collected from the condenser using at least one heat conducting rod. A second liquid storage container connected to the first liquid storage container is maintained at a lower temperature than the first liquid storage container. As a first portion of heated liquid is transferred from the first liquid storage container to the second liquid storage container, bacteria in the first portion of heated liquid is denatured as a result of the temperature change, and the liquid is purified. Filters may also be used to improve purification. A second portion of heated liquid is transferred between the first liquid storage container and a freezing unit via at least one heat conducting pipe causing defrosting of the freezing unit.

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