Manipal Teaching Hospital

Pokhara, Nepal

Manipal Teaching Hospital

Pokhara, Nepal
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Sharma S.,Kathmandu University | Chhetri H.P.,Kathmandu University | Alam K.,Manipal Teaching Hospital
Indian Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Aim: Drug-drug interaction (DDI) is of major concern in patients with complex therapeutic regimens. The involvement of cardiovascular medicines in drug interaction is even higher. However, reports of DDI between these groups of drugs are few. The study aims to identify the potential DDI among hospitalized cardiac patients. Furthermore, we assessed the possible risk factors associated with these interactions. Subjects and Methods: The Type of study prospective observational study was conducted from May 2012 to August 2012 among hospitalized cardiac patients. Cardiac patients who were taking at least two drugs and who had a hospital stay of at least 24 h were enrolled. The medications of the patients were analyzed for possible interactions using the standard drug interaction database - Micromedex -2 (Thomson Reuters) × 2.0. Results: From a total of 150 enrolled patients, at least one interacting drug combination was identified among 32 patients. The incidence of potential DDI was 21.3%. A total of 48 potentially hazardous drug interactions were identified. Atorvastatin/azithromycin (10.4%), enalapril/metformin (10.4%), enalapril/potassium chloride (10.4%), atorvastatin/clarithromycin (8.3%) and furosemide/gentamicin (6.3%) were the most common interacting pairs. Drugs most commonly involved were atorvastatin, enalapril, digoxin, furosemide, clopidogrel and warfarin. Majority of interactions were of moderate severity (62.5%) and pharmacokinetic (58.3%) in nature. Increased number of medicines, prolonged hospital stays and comorbid conditions were the risk factors found associated with the potential DDI. Conclusions: This study highlighted the need of intense monitoring of patients who have identified risk factors to help detect and prevent them from serious health hazards associated with drug interactions.

Pokhrel A.K.,University of California at Berkeley | Bates M.N.,University of California at Berkeley | Verma S.C.,Regional Tuberculosis Center | Verma S.C.,Manipal Teaching Hospital | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Health Perspectives | Year: 2010

Background: In Nepal, tuberculosis (TB) is a major problem. Worldwide, six previous epidemiologic studies have investigated whether indoor cooking with biomass fuel such as wood or agricultural wastes is associated with TB with inconsistent results. Objectives: Using detailed information on potential confounders, we investigated the associations between TB and the use of biomass and kerosene fuels. Methods: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Pokhara, Nepal. Cases (n = 125) were women, 20-65 years old, with a confirmed diagnosis of TB. Age-matched controls (n = 250) were female patients without TB. Detailed exposure histories were collected with a standardized questionnaire. Results: Compared with using a clean-burning fuel stove (liquefied petroleum gas, biogas), the adjusted odds ratio (OR) for using a biomass-fuel stove was 1.21 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.48-3.05], whereas use of a kerosene-fuel stove had an OR of 3.36 (95% CI, 1.01-11.22). The OR for use of biomass fuel for heating was 3.45 (95% CI, 1.44-8.27) and for use of kerosene lamps for lighting was 9.43 (95% CI, 1.45-61.32). Conclusions: This study provides evidence that the use of indoor biomass fuel, particularly as a source of heating, is associated with TB in women. It also provides the first evidence that using kerosene stoves and wick lamps is associated with TB. These associations require confirmation in other studies. If using kerosene lamps is a risk factor for TB, it would provide strong justification for promoting clean lighting sources, such as solar lamps.

Chuni N.,Manipal Teaching Hospital | Chuni N.,Indira Gandhi Memorial Hospital | Sreeramareddy C.T.,Manipal Teaching Hospital | Sreeramareddy C.T.,Melaka Manipal Medical College
BMC Women's Health | Year: 2011

Background: Majority of Nepalese women live in remote rural areas, where health services are not easily accessible. We determined the validity of Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) as a screening tool for identification of women with severe menopausal symptoms and cut-off MRS score for referral.Methods: A cross-sectional survey was carried out between February and August, 2008. Trained health workers administered MRS and a questionnaire to 729 women (40 to 65 years) attending health screening camps in Kaski district of Western Development Region of Nepal. Information about demographics, menopausal status, and use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), chronic disease, self-perceived general health and reproductive history was also collected. Menopausal status was classified according to the Staging of Reproductive Ageing Workshop (STRAW). We calculated rates of menopausal symptoms, sensitivity, and specificity and likelihood ratios of MRS scores for referral to a gynaecologist. We also carried out multivariate analyses to identify the predictors for referral to a gynaecologist for severe symptoms.Results: A total 729 women were interviewed. Mean age at menopause was 49.9 years (SD 5.6). Most frequently reported symptoms were, sleeping problems (574, 78.7%), physical and mental exhaustion (73.5%), hot flushes (508, 69.7%), joint and muscular discomfort (500, 68.6%) and dryness of vagina (449, 61.6%). Postmenopausal women (247, 33.9%) and perimenopausal (215, 29.5%) women together experienced significantly higher prevalence of all symptoms than the premenopausal (267, 36.6%) women. MRS score of ≥16 had highest ratio for (sensitivity + specificity)/2. Women who reported urogenital symptoms [OR 5.29, 95% CI 2.59, 10.78], and self perceived general health as poor [OR 1.29, 95% CI 1.11, 1.53] were more likely to be referred to a gynaecologist for severe menopausal symptoms. While women reporting somatic [OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.63, 0.82] and psychological [OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.74, 0.99] symptoms were less likely to be referred.Conclusion: MRS may be used as a screening tool at a cut-off score of ≥16 with least misclassification rate. However, its utility may be limited by woman's general health status and occurrence of urogenital symptoms. © 2011 Chuni and Sreeramareddy; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Shrestha S.P.,Manipal Teaching Hospital
Nepalese journal of ophthalmology : a biannual peer-reviewed academic journal of the Nepal Ophthalmic Society : NEPJOPH | Year: 2010

Refractive errors are a major cause of visual impairment in the population. To find the pattern of refractive errors among patients evaluated in a tertiary care hospital in the western region of Nepal. The present hospital-based retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Ophthalmology of the Manipal Teaching Hospital, situated in Pokhara, Nepal. Patients who had refractive error of at least 0.5 D (dioptre) were included for the study. During the study period, 15,410 patients attended the outpatient department and 10.8% of the patients were identified as having refractive error. The age of the patients in the present study ranged between 5 - 90 years. Myopia was the commonest refractive error followed by hypermetropia. There was no difference in the frequency of the type of refractive errors when they were defined using right the eye, the left eye or both the eyes. Males predominated among myopics and females predominated among hypermetropics. The majority of spherical errors was less than or equal to 2 D. Astigmatic power above 1D was rarely seen with hypermetropic astigmatism and was seen in around 13 % with myopic astigmatism. "Astigmatism against the rule" was more common than "astigmatism with the rule", irrespective of age. Refractive errors progressively shift along myopia up to the third decade and change to hypermetropia till the seventh decade. Hyperopic shift in the refractive error in young adults should be well noted while planning any refractive surgery in younger patients with myopia. © Nepal Ophthalmic Society.

Batajoo H.,Manipal Teaching Hospital
Journal of Nepal Health Research Council | Year: 2013

Gallstone diseases being common disorder, multiple studies have shown an association between gallstones and abnormal lipids. This study is to compare the serum lipid abnormalities in females who have cholelithiasis with controls. A retrospective study of females who underwent cholecystectomy for gallstone disease was carried out. A total of 133 patients were divided into two age groups ≤ 40 and >40 years. In age group ≤ 40 years, there were 72 cases with no controls, whereas, in >40 years, 61 cases were compared with 67 controls. The serum lipid profile were collected and compared according to the age groups. The groups were compared by using Student's t-test, p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. In age group >40 years serum LDL of gallstone patients were statistically significantly raised (P<0.05) (95% CI -22.077; -850) compared with controls and serum total cholesterol and triglycerides were not statistically significantly high (P >0.05). Serum HDL and VLDL were lower in gallstone patients but not statistically significant (P >0.05) compared to control group. The study showed that serum LDL level was statistically significant in females >40 years of age, whereas other parameters were not statistically significantly different.

Koirala K.,Manipal Teaching Hospital
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2015

Background: Laryngeal malignancy is a common malignancy of the head and neck region. Affected patients usually present with features that are characteristic of certain subsites. The larynx is oncologically divided into three: supraglottis, glottis and subglottis. Studies from Western countries have shown that the glottis is the commonest subsite to harbour laryngeal malignancy. However, the supraglottis has been reported to be the commonest subsite in developing countries, including examples in the Indian subcontinent. To our knowledge, no study has been carried out in western Nepal about the epidemiology of laryngeal cancer to date. The purpose of this study was to analyse the epidemiology of laryngeal cancer in relation to its risk factors, age distribution,and preferred subsites and to see if there is any recent change in the subsite wise distribution of laryngeal malignancy in western Nepal. Materials and Methods: Patients of all ages and both sexes with suspected laryngeal malignancy were enrolled in the initial study. Detailed history taking and clinical examination was performed to find out the involved subsite in relation to the clinical features. Direct laryngoscopy was performed to further confirm the subsite and to take biopsy from the growth under general anesthesia. After confirmation of malignancy from the biopsy report, patients were finally included in the study. Data were analysed and observations were made to find out the distribution of laryngeal malignancy in different subsites. Results: The supraglottic larynx was the commonest subsite to harbor laryngeal malignancy. Smoking and alcohol were found to be the common risk factors. The mean age of the patients was in their sixties. Conclusions: Laryngeal malignancy is common in elderly individuals. Supraglottic laryngeal malignancy is the commonest laryngeal malignancy in people who smoke and drink alcohol in Nepal. Avoidance of alcohol use and smoking will be a milestone to reduce the incidence of laryngeal cancers and associated mortality.

Pokhrel A.K.,University of California at Berkeley | Bates M.N.,University of California at Berkeley | Shrestha S.P.,Manipal Teaching Hospital | Bailey I.L.,University of California at Berkeley | And 2 more authors.
Optometry and Vision Science | Year: 2013

PURPOSE: Cataract is the most prevalent cause of blindness in Nepal. Several epidemiologic studies have associated cataracts with use of biomass cookstoves. These studies, however, have had limitations, including potential control selection bias and limited adjustment for possible confounding. This study, in Pokhara City, in an area of Nepal where biomass cookstoves are widely used without direct venting of the smoke to the outdoors, focuses on preclinical measures of opacity while avoiding selection bias and taking into account comprehensive data on potential confounding factors. METHODS: Using a cross-sectional study design, severity of lenticular damage, judged on the LOCS (Lens Opacities Classification System) III scales, was investigated in women (n = 143), aged 20 to 65 years, without previously diagnosed cataract. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used to examine the relationships with stove type and length of use. Clinically significant cataract, used in the logistic regression models, was defined as a LOCS III score ≥2. RESULTS: Using gas cookstoves as the reference group, logistic regression analysis for nuclear cataract showed evidence of relationships with stove type: for biomass stoves, the odds ratio was 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.22 to 5.46); and for kerosene stoves, the odds ratio was 5.18 (95% confidence interval, 0.88 to 30.38). Similar results were found for nuclear color (LOCS III score ≥2), but no association was found with cortical cataracts. Supporting a relationship between biomass stoves and nuclear cataract was a trend with years of exposure to biomass cookstoves (p = 0.01). Linear regression analyses did not show clear evidence of an association between lenticular damage and stove types. Biomass fuel used for heating was not associated with any form of opacity. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides support for associations of biomass and kerosene cookstoves with nuclear opacity and change in nuclear color. The novel associations with kerosene cookstove use deserve further investigation. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Optometry.

Pant H.P.,Manipal Teaching Hospital | Poudel R.,Manipal Teaching Hospital | Dsovza V.,Manipal Teaching Hospital
International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia | Year: 2010

Few reports exist on venomous snake bites during pregnancy. Envenomation during pregnancy can result in fetal and maternal death. A woman at 33 weeks of gestation presented with green tree viper envenomation and vaginal bleeding. Investigation revealed a grossly deranged coagulation profile, severe anemia and a dead fetus. After correction of the coagulation profile, induction of labor was followed by vaginal delivery. Postpartum care was uneventful, and the patient was discharged five days post partum. Green tree viper bite may cause fetal demise before the onset of maternal symptoms. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ghimire P.,Manipal Teaching Hospital | Ghimire P.,Fishtail Hospital and Research Center | Yogi N.,Manipal Teaching Hospital | Shrestha B.B.,Manipal Teaching Hospital
Kathmandu University Medical Journal | Year: 2011

Background: Carcinoma of gall bladder is the most common malignancy of the billiary tract. Most of the cases are diagnosed as an incidental case among patients undergoing cholecystectomy. Objectives: To establish the rate of incidental carcinoma of gall bladder in patients undergoing routine cholecystectomy to study the demographic profile and prognosis of these patients. Methods: A retrospective study was carried out in Fishtail Hospital and Research Center, Pokhara during 1998-2009. The surgical notes, hospital records and histopathology reports of 783 patients undergoing routine cholecystectomy were studied. Results: Out of 783 cases, gall bladder cancer was detected in 10(1.28%) of cases and was more common in females (M:F ratio 1:2.3) and the mean age of occurrence was 63.8 years. Most of the cases diagnosed were at their early stages and none of them were in T3 and T4 stages. Six of these patients have survived till a mean follow up duration of 23.7 months. Conclusion: The rate of incidental carcinoma of gall bladder is 1.28%.

Ghosh A.,Manipal Teaching Hospital | Pradhan S.,Manipal Teaching Hospital | Talwar O.,Manipal Teaching Hospital
Indian Journal of Pathology and Microbiology | Year: 2010

Background and Aims: Castleman's disease (CD) is a rare disease of lymph node with two identified forms - the hyaline vascular (HV) type or angiofollicular type and plasma cell (PC) type. It usually presents as localized or systemic lymphadenopathy or even as extra nodal mass and may give rise to several differential diagnoses. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), as the initial investigation, may be misleading. Excision biopsy usually gives the diagnosis. This study analyzes the clinical, cytological and histological features of CD of HV type Materials and Methods: All the cases of CD reported between 2001 and March 2008 have been reviewed. Cytology and histopathology slides of all cases were reviewed by two reporting pathologists independently and the clinical records were analyzed. Result: We had five cases of CD all of which presented as cervical lymphadenopathy of 1 to 5 cms in young patients. Patients were mostly asymptomatic with all relevant investigations within normal limits. The cytology findings mostly showed a predominance of small lymphocytes with capillary fragments. On excision biopsy, all cases were diagnosed as CD of HV type. Conclusion: CD should be kept as a differential of lymphadenopathy, especially in asymptomatic and young patients.

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