Durban, South Africa

Mangosuthu University of Technology is a University of Technology situated on the outskirts of Durban, South Africa, on a site overlooking the Indian Ocean. The majority of students speak Zulu and it is situated near the T section in Umlazi. Wikipedia.

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Jaiyeola A.T.,Mangosuthu University of Technology
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2017

Water is a precious resource. Its demand is rising rapidly and has already exceeded the supply capacity of natural sources in many cities. Airports are spread over vast areas which are normally free from birds and pollution and thus offer immense opportunities for rainwater harvesting which could, to a large extent, meet their non-potable water requirements. This article reviews rainwater treatment procedures at various airports which not only provide a valuable resource for their own consumption but also prevent the entry of pollutants directly into the environment. It also discusses the models and approaches to assess the rainwater harvesting potential of airports on parameters of cost and reliability. It explains the stages involved in the rainwater harvesting systems and how some airports have implemented rainwater treatment systems. Finally, it identifies the gaps at various stages and discusses possible improvements in the near future. © 2016, Islamic Azad University (IAU).

Objectives: The ability of Human Leucocyte Antigen-G (HLA-G) to inhibit the cytolytic effect to immunocompetent cell types, suggests that HLA-G has an immunomodulatory role. In view of this concept the objective of the study was to assess whether the Major Histocompatibility Complex -coded molecule HLA-G mRNA is a risk factor at the placental barrier in HIV-1 positive pregnant women. Design: Placental HLA-G1 levels in HIV-1 infected mothers and viral loads in both mothers and their babies were performed on fifty-five participants. Methods: Synthesis of complementary deoxyribose nucleic acid (cDNA) was performed using ribose nucleic acid (RNA) extracted from placental tissue samples. Amplification of cDNA using specifically designed primers complementary to the full length HLA-G1 isoform was quantified using real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Viral load assays (Amplicor Version 1.5, Roche Diagnostics) were performed on all plasma samples. Results: HLA-G1 primers detected the full length isoform HLA-G1 PCR product at 86.5 °C. Logistic regression calculations indicated that the risk of babies becoming infected increased by 1.3 with every 1 unit increase in HLA-G1 expression. Female babies were 3.7 times more likely to become infected than male. There was a positive correlation between mothers' log viral load and transmission of infection to the baby (p = 0.047; 95%CI 1.029-11.499). Conclusion: Maternal viral load was a strong predictor of viral transmission. Placental HLA-G1 expression was up-regulated 3.95 times more in placentas of HIV-1 infected mothers with infected babies when compared to uninfected babies. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Davies T.C.,Mangosuthu University of Technology
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

Severe geoenvironmental, economic and social problems are recognised in many urban areas, worldwide. In Africa, these problems are acute, especially in the rapidly expanding megacities, and they impact on public health, poverty alleviation and sustainable development. Many cities have become densely overpopulated as a result of migration due to civil wars and the search for a better life. Cities are seen as offering more hope of jobs, better health care and educational opportunities. But these are also home to an overwhelming percentage of a country's wealth. The rapid expansion of megacities is likely to be a drain on Africa's dwindling resources, as well as a major call on international aid, while contributing substantially to environmental degradation. African megacities are at risk of geological disasters and pose huge problems for waste management, supply of raw materials, water use, air quality and climate change. Research and practice of urban geology in Africa have seen the development of new outputs to aid urban development, regeneration and conservation. Another key advance has been the realisation that, in the urban environment, knowledge and understanding of the geology need to be integrated with those of other environmental disciplines such as biodiversity and, increasingly, with the research of social scientists, economists and others. At the same time, however, it is recognised that municipal authorities need greater access to extensive databases of geoinformation that are maintained in the long-term, and renewed regularly. We need to demonstrate convincingly to all stakeholders how the geosciences can contribute to sustainable development. This discourse examines the dynamics of geoenvironmental phenomena and processes in Africa's largest urban settings (Cairo, Lagos and Kinshasa), and uses case studies and city overviews (descriptions and geodata analyses) to show how the application of geology to urban construction and development in Africa should be effectively done. The completeness of urban geotechnical databases is highlighted and their application to environmental construction and related geological problems illustrated. The three megacities provide contrasting geological settings but similar urban architecture. The fact that engineering construction problems are closely controlled by the local or site geological setting, gives for the three cities, a range of scenarios; and proposed solutions or interventions in one area can be usefully applied to tackle problems in another area with similar geology. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Davies T.C.,Mangosuthu University of Technology
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2013

Over the last two decades, there has been a rapid growth in research in the field of medical geology around the world, and we continue to encounter " new" and important correlations between certain environmental health conditions and factors related to our interactions with geological materials and processes. A review of the possible role of geochemical factors such as the circulation of Mg, Se and F and the physico-chemical composition of volcanic soil particles, on the aetiology of some common diseases in Africa, is presented. Such studies till now, have tended to emphasise only the deleterious health impacts due to geoenvironmental factors. This is justifiable, since a proper understanding of the negative health impacts has contributed significantly towards improvement in diagnosis and therapy. But there are also beneficial effects accrued from judiciously exploiting geological materials and processes, exemplified in this review, by the several important medical applications of African clays, the therapeutic gains associated with hot springs, and balneology of peat deposits. The criticality of the " optimal range" of intake for the nutrient elements Mg, Se and F in metabolic processes is also emphasised, and illustrations given of illnesses such as cardiovascular disorders and various cancers (all major causes of mortality in Africa) that can possibly occur on either side of this range. It is hoped that this review would help generate ideas for the formulation of experimental studies that take into account the role of the geochemical environment, in an attempt to establish precisely the obscure aetiology of some of the diseases treated, and uncover new pathways in their pathogenesis. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Nkwonta O.,Mangosuthu University of Technology
International Journal of Physical Sciences | Year: 2010

Roughing filtration can be considered as a major pretreatment process for waste water, since the process efficiently separate fine solid particles over prolonged periods without addition of chemicals. Roughing filters mainly act as physical filters and reduce the solid mass. However, the large filter surface area available for sedimentation and relatively small filtration rates also supports adsorption as well as chemical and biological processes. Therefore besides solid matter separation, roughing filters also partly improve the bacteriological water quality and to a minor extent, change some other water quality parameters such as color or amount of dissolved organic matter. This article evaluates modifications to roughing filtration technology, which may address these limitations without compromising the simplicity of the treatment process and also compare the efficiency of horizontal roughing filters and vertical roughing filters. Successful modifications include the design concept and process capabilities for roughing filter. Achieved results in this study shows that Horizontal roughing filters perform better than vertical roughing filters due to unlimited filter length, simple layout and less susceptible than vertical-flow filters to solid breakthroughs caused by flow rate changes in the filters. © 2010 Academic Journals.

Owolawi P.A.,Mangosuthu University of Technology
Progress in Electromagnetics Research | Year: 2011

The paper describes the modelling of the average rainfall rate distribution measured at different locations in South Africa. There are three major aspects this paper addresses: to develop a rainfall rate model based on the maximum likelihood method (ML); to develop contour maps based on rainfall rate at 0:01% percentage of exceedence; and re-classification of the ITU-R and Crane rain zones for the Southern Africa region. The work presented is based on five- minute rainfall data converted to one-minute equivalent using a newly proposed hybrid method. The results are mapped and compared with conventional models such as the ITU-R model, Rice-Holmberg, Moupfouma and Crane models. The proposed rainfall rate models are compared and evaluated using root mean square and chi-square (χ2) statistics. Then re-classification of the rain zone using ITU-R and Crane designations is suggested for easy integration with existing radio planning tools. The rainfall rate contour maps at 0:01% percentage of exceedence are then developed for South Africa and its surrounding islands.

White S.,Durban University of Technology | White S.,Mangosuthu University of Technology | Anandraj A.,Mangosuthu University of Technology | Bux F.,Durban University of Technology
Bioresource Technology | Year: 2011

This study investigated the use of Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) fluorometry to measure nutrient induced physiological stress and subsequent synthesis of cellular neutral lipids. A freshwater Chlorella sp. was subjected to complete nutrient stress (distilled H 2O) and selective nutrient stress in modified BG-11 media (BG-11-N, BG-11-P and BG-11-Fe). Physiological stress was recorded using parameters, rETR, F v/F m, E k, α and NPQ. Induced stress became evident when these parameters were significantly altered, suggesting the onset of neutral lipid synthesis. Complete nutrient stress induced the highest yield of cellular neutral lipids (∼49%) compared to absence of selected nutrients (∼30%). Physiological stress was recorded by a significant decrease in rETR (75%), F v/F m (36%), and E k (60%) and an increase in NPQ (83%). Optimization of neutral lipids occurred by initially maximizing the biomass and subsequently subjecting the harvested biomass to complete nutrient stress. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

Coopoosamy R.M.,Mangosuthu University of Technology
African Journal of Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Industrial and pharmacological applications of volatile and non-volatile compounds isolated from plants have been dominating the commercial sector over the recent two decades. Attempts in isolation of volatile compounds of aloes have impact on the medicinal as well as the cosmetic industries. Volatile compound isolation and extraction was performed on leaf exudates of Aloe excelsa. Three commercially important compounds, namely: phenylacetonitrile, carvone and limonene were identified using gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). © 2010 Academic Journals.

Zawilska E.,Mangosuthu University of Technology | Brooks M.J.,University of KwaZulu - Natal
Renewable Energy | Year: 2011

Renewable energy's role as an alternative to fossil-based power is growing in the developing world. The city of Durban, South Africa, is an example of a rapidly expanding urban center which can benefit from the implementation of solar energy technologies. This paper presents a year-long data record of the solar flux intensity for the city of Durban (29°58′N 30°55′E). Global horizontal irradiance (Gt), direct normal irradiance (GDN), diffuse horizontal irradiance (Gd) and daily average clearness index (KT) are used. The data were recorded at the Solar Thermal Applications Research Laboratory (STARlab) at Mangosuthu University of Technology. Ground-based measurements obtained from STARlab are compared with data from a variety of sources including NASA's SSE database and the literature. The aim of this study is to build a reliable record of the solar resource for urban planning, engineering design and effective operation of solar energy systems and applications. Results show that Durban has a considerable solar energy resource, which remains to be exploited. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Ilcev S.D.,Mangosuthu University of Technology
Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology | Year: 2011

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to examine the potential applications of stratospheric communication platforms (SCP), which have been recently introduced as an alternative for satellite communications. Design/methodology/approach - Various applications, solutions and services are planned by using aircraft or airship SCP, which could be classified as digital narrowband or broadband, depending on the broadband required. The platforms as base stations can provide service for fixed and mobile applications, with commercial and military solutions. Subscribers will use uplink to the platform for transmitting and receiving information, where onboard SCP switching devices will downlink to the ground station and route traffic directly to other subscribers within the same platform coverage, to another platform via optical inter-platform links, trough heterogeneous networks including satellite or to the terrestrial telecommunications network. Each SCP can deploy an antenna for large coverage area or a multibeam antenna capable of projecting numerous spot beams within its potential coverage area. Findings - This paper outlines the findings of fixed and mobile applications, features, testing and some specific development programs of SCP using aircraft solutions, such as SkyTower and airship solutions, such as CRL/TAO/NAL. Research limitations/implications - Particular consideration is given to the use of SCP for delivery of future broadband, broadcast and multimedia wireless communications including research for new communication, navigation and surveillance (CNS) implications. Practical implications - SCP will provide communication facilities that can exploit the best features for both terrestrial and satellite schemes. Originality/value - Emerging solutions of voice, data and video over IP are offered by SCPs operating in the stratosphere at altitudes of up to 25 km. © Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

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