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Van Stuijvenberg M.,Beatrix Childrens Hospital | Stam J.,Beatrix Childrens Hospital | Gruber C.,Charité - Medical University of Berlin | Mosca F.,University of Milan | And 57 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

This is a follow up study of a multicenter randomised placebo-controlled trial in seven centres in five West European countries. The RCT assessed the effect of infant formula supplemented with a mixture of prebiotics (with neutral short-chain and long-chain oligosaccharides and pectin-derived acidic oligosaccharides) during infancy in term-born children (n=1130). In the follow-up study 672 children (60% of the study population) participated: 232 (56%) from the prebiotics group (PG), 243 (58%) from the control group (CG), and 197 (66%) from the non-randomised breast-fed group (BG). The primary outcome was the occurrence of febrile episodes at three to five years of age prospectively documented by the parents: in the PG 1.17 (interquartile range 0.50-2.08) episodes per year versus 1.20 (0.52-2.57) in the CG; and 1.48 (0.65-2.60) in the BG. This specific prebiotics mixture given during infancy in healthy non-atopic subjects does not decrease febrile episodes and therefore seems not to prevent infection between their third and fifth birthday. © 2015 van Stuijvenberg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Manzoni P.,S Anna Hospital | Stolfi I.,Policlinico Umberto I | Messner H.,Ospedale Regionale | Cattani S.,University of Modena and Reggio Emilia | And 16 more authors.
Pediatrics | Year: 2012

BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin is a mammalian milk glycoprotein involved in innate immunity. Recent data show that bovine lactoferrin (bLF) prevents late-onset sepsis in preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of data from a multicenter randomized controlled trial where preterm VLBW neonates randomly received bLF (100 mg/day; group A1), bLF + Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (10 6 colony-forming units per day; group A2), or placebo (group B) for 6 weeks. Here we analyze the incidence rates of fungal colonization, invasive fungal infection (IFI), and rate of progression from colonization to infection in all groups. RESULTS: This study included 472 neonates whose clinical, nutritional, and demographical characteristics were similar. Overall, the incidence of fungal colonization was comparable (17.6%, 16.6%, and 18.5% in A1, A2, and B, respectively; P = .89 [A1] and .77 [A2]). In contrast, IFIs were significantly decreased in A1 and A2 (0.7% and 2.0%, respectively) compared with B (7.7%; P = .002 [A1] and .02 [A2]), and this was significantly true both in <1000 g (0.9% [A1] and 5.6% [A2], vs 15.0%) and in 1001 to 1500 g infants (0% and 0% vs 3.7%). The progression rate colonization-infection was significantly lower in the bLF groups: 3.7% (A1) and 12% (A2), vs 41.9%; P < .001 (A1) and P = .02 (A2). No IFI-attributable deaths occurred in the treatment groups, versus 2 in placebo. No adverse effects or intolerances occurred. CONCLUSIONS: Prophylactic oral administration of bLF reduces the incidence of IFI in preterm VLBW neonates. No effect is seen on colonization. The protective effect on IFI is likely due to limitation of ability of fungal colonies to progress toward invasion and systemic disease in colonized infants. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

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